Polio also known as poliomyelitis, is a cause of poliovirus infection. The condition involves inflammation of the spinal cord gray matter. It is an acute infectious disease which is highly contagious via the oral-oral and fecal-oral routes. The infection may even spread into the brainstem leading to polioencephalitis. About 90% of polio infections are known to cause no symptoms; however, it may exhibit symptoms if the virus passed into the blood stream. Polio infections may result into various types of paralysis, depending on the type of nerve infected. Various types of polio include spinal polio, bulbar polio, and bulbospinal polio. Laboratory diagnosis of the disease involves recovery of the poliovirus from stool samples or a swab of the pharynx. Detection of antibodies in the blood against poliovirus may help in the disease diagnosis. There is no known cure for polio, and thus vaccination remains the only preventive measure against this disease.
The global polio market is expected to grow substantially due to targeted and data driven planning, rigorous monitoring and effective communication, skilled and motivated staff, and adequate funding. However, high rates of migration and birth rates, population density, poor sanitation, and low routine immunization rates are likely to pose a challenge to this market. Increasing efforts for vaccination led by the WHO and UNICEF may help the eradication of the disease across the globe. In addition, provision of free vaccination by dedicated workers can lead to complete eradication of the disease. For instance, India was declared polio-free in 2012.
The global market for polio is segmented by vaccine, supportive measure, application, and geography. In terms of vaccine, the market is segmented into inactivated polio vaccine and live attenuated vaccine. The inactivated polio vaccine is administered by using parenteral route, and the live attenuated vaccine is administered by oral route. The live attenuated vaccine segment generates higher revenue than the inactivated polio vaccine segment as the former is easy to administer, and required high dose as compared to parenteral route. Both the vaccines are generally considered safe to give at the time of pregnancy and to those who have HIV/AIDS. The World Health Organization recommends that all children around the world should be vaccinated against polio. In terms of supportive measure, the market is segmented into antibiotics, analgesics, portable ventilators, and rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, braces, orthopedic surgery, corrective shoes, and physical therapy. Based on application, the market for polio is divided into adults and pediatric patients. The pediatric segment is likely to account for a significant share of the polio market owing to increase in the number of programs for raising awareness regarding vaccination.
Geographically, the market for polio is distributed over North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. Each geography market is sub-divided into specific countries such as the U.S., Canada, Germany, the U.K., Brazil, China, India, Japan, and GCC countries. North America is currently leading the polio market due to initiatives taken by the government for promoting the adoption of immunization programs against the polio disease and others such as influenza and HPV.
The target audiences of the global polio market include vaccine manufacturers, vaccine associations, clinical laboratories, vaccine research institutes, vaccine raw material suppliers, group purchasing organizations (GPOs), immunization centers, research and consulting firms, vaccine product distributors, biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies, vaccine development institutes and organizations, and hospitals and laboratories.
Key players operating in this market include GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co, Sanofi Pasteur, CSL Limited, Astellas Pharma Inc., Emergent BioSolutions, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, MedImmune, LLC, and Serum Institute India Pvt. Ltd.