Antimycobacterial drugs are used to treat infections caused by members of Mycobacterium genus. Mycobacterium genus includes M. tuberculosis, M. leprae, and M. avium-intracellulare which cause tuberculosis, leprosy, and atypical mycobacteria, respectively. Tuberculosis and leprosy are the most common infections caused by mycobacteria genus. M. avium-intracellulare bacteria are usually present in water and soil and are less harmful to humans compared to M. tuberculosis. Therefore, infections caused by these bacteria are called atypical and non-tuberculous infections. Infections caused by mycobacteria are treatable, but usually require more than one medicine due to the tendency of bacteria to develop resistance to drugs. Increase in government initiatives for the treatment of TB, rise in prevalence of mycobacterial diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy, surge in awareness about infections, favorable reimbursement policies, and resistance developed by bacteria for antimycobacterial drugs are the major factors expected to drive the global antimycobacterial drugs market. However, low availability of proper diagnostic facilities for diseases such as leprosy is likely to restrain the market. Development of novel drug delivery systems affecting bacterial resistance and reducing the amount of drugs required for the complete treatment of infection are the recent trends in the global antimycobacterial drugs market.
The global antimycobacterial drugs market can be segmented based on product type and distribution channel. In terms of product type, the antimycobacterial drugs market can be classified into drugs used for tuberculosis, drugs used for leprosy, and drugs used for atypical mycobacteria. The drugs used for tuberculosis segment can be bifurcated into first line drugs and alternative drugs. First line drugs include isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, and rifampicin. Alternative drugs include PAS (para amino salicylate) and ethionamide. The drugs used for leprosy segment includes Dapsone (diamino diphenyl sulfone), clofazimine, and rifampicin. Atypical mycobacteria drugs include azithromycin and clarithromycin. The drugs used for tuberculosis segment held the largest share of the antimycobacterial drugs market in 2017 due to campaigns organized by governments to spread awareness about tuberculosis. The segment is expected to sustain its leadership position during the forecast period. Based on distribution channel, the global antimycobacterial drugs market can be divided into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies. The hospital pharmacies segment dominated the antimycobacterial drugs market in 2017 due to easy availability of leprosy and tuberculosis medications in government hospitals. The segment is expected to continue to dominate the market from 2018 to 2026.
In terms of region, the global antimycobacterial drugs market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Middle East & Africa dominated the global market in 2017 due to high prevalence of TB and related co-infections in the developing countries. According to WHO, in 2017, 10 million people were infected with TB in the region, and 1.6 million succumbed to the disease (including 0.3 million with HIV). The market in Asia Pacific is anticipated to expand at the highest CAGR owing to rise in prevalence of mycobacterial diseases, surge in awareness, increase in per capita income, and improvement in health care infrastructure.
Major players operating in the global antimycobacterial drugs market include Bayer AG, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Lupin Limited, Pfizer, Inc., Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Novartis AG, Systopic Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., AstraZeneca plc, Sanofi, Zydus Cadila, and Merck & Co., Inc.
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