Enterobacteriaceae infections are caused by Enterobacter species, pathogens responsible for causing severe infections including bacteremia, urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and intra-abdominal infections. Signs and symptoms of Enterobacteriaceae infections include fever, hypotension and shock, septic shock, lower respiratory tract infections, etc. These infections need to be treated immediately with the usage of antimicrobial drugs. Major antibiotics involved to manage these infections include beta-lactams, carbapenems, amino-glycosides, fluoroquinolones, and TMP-SMZ. The choice of appropriate antibiotics is very important since many enterobacter species are resistant to antibiotics. A thorough understanding of anti-microbial resistance is important before prescribing the medication, since the genes that code resistance are mobile and can move between plasmids and also between different species and strains which are not resistance currently, but can become resistant in the future. The market drug resistance mediators include broad spectrum beta-lactamases, carbapenemases, extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL), AmpC beta lactamases, modification of enzymes, alterated enzymes, decreased permeability, etc.
Rising prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae infectious diseases, increasing rate of new infections, and the continuous mutations in the microorganisms leading to new strains, are the driving factors driving the infectious diseases treatment market. Furthermore, increasing modes of transmission of the infectious disease and a lack of cleanliness in developing regions has fueled the infectious diseases market. However, asymptomatic conditions of infectious diseases, a lack of treatment for certain diseases, false positive results with certain tests are likely to hamper the expansion of tye infectious diseases testing market. The only restraining factor of the market is the rapid resistance to drugs currently available for enterobacter infections.
The global Enterobacteriaceae infections treatment market can be segmented based on antimicrobial drugs, distribution channel, and geography. Based on antimicrobial drug class, the market is segregated into beta-lactams, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and TMP-SMZ (Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole). Beta-lactam drugs include penicillins, cephalosporins etc. Amongst these, cephalosporin drug class have good activity, while the activity of carbapenems is excellent. Tigecycline is the most recent drug class utilized in the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae infections. Recently, FDA approved meropenem/vaborbactam for complicated urinary tract infections resulting from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. In terms of distribution channel, the global Enterobacteriaceae infections treatment market can be segmented into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies. Hospital and retail pharmacies segments are witnessing rapid expansion due to the requirement of extended hospitalization due to these infections and also post-hospitalization course of treatment needs to be completed.
In terms of geography, the global Enterobacteriaceae infection treatment market is segregated into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. The North America market is expected to expand during the forecast period, followed by Europe, due to the rise in demand for advanced treatment, rise in healthcare expenditure, and increased diagnosis rate. The market in Asia Pacific is likely to expand at a rapid rate due to the developing healthcare infrastructure, increased government expenditure, and higher number of patients in developing economies in the region.
Key market players operating in the Enterobacteriaceae infections treatment market include Genentech, Inc., Nanotherapeutics, Inc., Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc., Nymox Pharmaceutical Corporation, Sequoia Sciences, Inc., TheraCarb Inc., Phico Therapeutics Ltd., and Cantab Biopharmaceuticals Limited.