Taxoplasmosis encephalitis is an infection caused by Taxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite. The infection can occur pre-natally or post-natally. It may be caused by exposure or consumption of undercooked meat, drinking of unpasteurized goat milk, contact with soil, cleaning of cat litter boxes, and ingestion of unwashed raw fruits or vegetables. The infection can also occur during organ transplantation or due to laboratory accidents. Prevalence of the infection varies from country to country. The prevalence is high in Latin America and countries of tropical Africa. North America, Southeast Asia, Northern Europe, and Africa witness low sero-prevalence, while Central and Southern Europe witness moderate prevalence of the disease.
The global taxoplasmosis encephalitis market can be segmented based on diagnostic tests and geography. Diagnostic tests include serological investigations, direct detection, and imaging. Presence of IgG antibodies indicates risk of infection. Monitoring of IgM and IgA levels in neonates helps in screening of the infection. Imaging tests comprise MRI or CT scanning for brain lesions. Newer scanning procedures viz. PET or SPECT imaging assist in distinguishing taxoplasma encephalitis from other infections of the central nervous system. Fetal or neonatal ultrasonography can be performed in cases of known transplacental infection. Positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning can be helpful in distinguishing between taxoplasmosis encephalitis and primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. However, no imaging technique is completely specific.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification technique, screening of tissue sections or body smears, and tests such as tissue culture or biopsy stain are some of the direct tests for detecting the presence of Taxoplasma gondii. Tissue section and body smearing tests are conducted to find out the presence of tachyzoites, which is an active form of the parasite. Polymerase chain reactions allow detection of presence of the parasite in the blood, the body tissues, and the fluids. This test particularly helps in the diagnosis of disseminated disease, especially in HIV patients and intrauterine toxoplasmosis patients. Individuals infected with HIV should be tested for IgG antibody against the organism to detect the latent infection of T. gondii.
Patients with taxoplasmosis encephalitis are administered anticonvulsants if they have past history of seizures. However, it is not recommended as prophylaxis for all patients. Other drugs which may be administered to treat the infection are pyrimethamine, sulfonamides, spiramycinm clindamycin, macrolides, hydroxynaphtoquinones, folate inhibitors, immunomodulators, and other combination drugs. Geographically, the global taxoplasmosis encephalitis market can be categorized into four major regions viz. North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of World. In the U.S., toxoplasmic encephalitis is mostly caused by reactivation of chronic infection in patients with HIV. Moreover, the incidence of this disease has a direct correlation with the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Approximately 10% to 40% of patients with HIV in the U.S. manifest presence of antibodies against T. gondii.
Various studies indicate that 50% of T. gondii-seropositive AIDS patients develop toxoplasmic encephalitis in a due course of time. The risk of toxoplasmosis decreases after administration of a primary prophylaxis against T. gondii and recommendation of effective therapy against the retrovirus. Prevalence of the asymptomatic infection usually increases with the age. Seroprevalence rates of this parasitic infection have been declining worldwide. However, it is observed to be high in South America, Africa, and Europe. Furthermore, in some of these places, rates may be still increasing. Some of the key players operating in the global taxoplasmosis encephalitis market include DiaSorin, Glenmark, GlaxoSmithKline, Hoffman La Roche, and Boehringer Ingelheim.
This study by TMR is all-encompassing framework of the dynamics of the market. It mainly comprises critical assessment of consumers' or customers' journeys, current and emerging avenues, and strategic framework to enable CXOs take effective decisions.
Our key underpinning is the 4-Quadrant Framework EIRS that offers detailed visualization of four elements:
- Customer Experience Maps
- Insights and Tools based on data-driven research
- Actionable Results to meet all the business priorities
- Strategic Frameworks to boost the growth journey
The study strives to evaluate the current and future growth prospects, untapped avenues, factors shaping their revenue potential, and demand and consumption patterns in the global market by breaking it into region-wise assessment.
The following regional segments are covered comprehensively:
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Latin America
- The Middle East and Africa
The EIRS quadrant framework in the report sums up our wide spectrum of data-driven research and advisory for CXOs to help them make better decisions for their businesses and stay as leaders.
Below is a snapshot of these quadrants.
1. Customer Experience Map
The study offers an in-depth assessment of various customers’ journeys pertinent to the market and its segments. It offers various customer impressions about the products and service use. The analysis takes a closer look at their pain points and fears across various customer touchpoints. The consultation and business intelligence solutions will help interested stakeholders, including CXOs, define customer experience maps tailored to their needs. This will help them aim at boosting customer engagement with their brands.
2. Insights and Tools
The various insights in the study are based on elaborate cycles of primary and secondary research the analysts engage with during the course of research. The analysts and expert advisors at TMR adopt industry-wide, quantitative customer insights tools and market projection methodologies to arrive at results, which makes them reliable. The study not just offers estimations and projections, but also an uncluttered evaluation of these figures on the market dynamics. These insights merge data-driven research framework with qualitative consultations for business owners, CXOs, policy makers, and investors. The insights will also help their customers overcome their fears.
3. Actionable Results
The findings presented in this study by TMR are an indispensable guide for meeting all business priorities, including mission-critical ones. The results when implemented have shown tangible benefits to business stakeholders and industry entities to boost their performance. The results are tailored to fit the individual strategic framework. The study also illustrates some of the recent case studies on solving various problems by companies they faced in their consolidation journey.
4. Strategic Frameworks
The study equips businesses and anyone interested in the market to frame broad strategic frameworks. This has become more important than ever, given the current uncertainty due to COVID-19. The study deliberates on consultations to overcome various such past disruptions and foresees new ones to boost the preparedness. The frameworks help businesses plan their strategic alignments for recovery from such disruptive trends. Further, analysts at TMR helps you break down the complex scenario and bring resiliency in uncertain times.
The report sheds light on various aspects and answers pertinent questions on the market. Some of the important ones are:
1. What can be the best investment choices for venturing into new product and service lines?
2. What value propositions should businesses aim at while making new research and development funding?
3. Which regulations will be most helpful for stakeholders to boost their supply chain network?
4. Which regions might see the demand maturing in certain segments in near future?
5. What are the some of the best cost optimization strategies with vendors that some well-entrenched players have gained success with?
6. Which are the key perspectives that the C-suite are leveraging to move businesses to new growth trajectory?
7. Which government regulations might challenge the status of key regional markets?
8. How will the emerging political and economic scenario affect opportunities in key growth areas?
9. What are some of the value-grab opportunities in various segments?
10. What will be the barrier to entry for new players in the market?
Note: Although care has been taken to maintain the highest levels of accuracy in TMR’s reports, recent market/vendor-specific changes may take time to reflect in the analysis.