Hepatorenal syndrome or HRS is a medical condition characterized by progressive renal failure in patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis. It is a life-threatening and serious complication of cirrhosis. Patients suffering from HRS generally do not show any recognizable cause of kidney dysfunction as the kidneys themselves are not structurally damaged. It can be termed as “functional” form of kidney impairment. Patients suffering from hepatorenal syndrome generally does show a number of symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, and malaise. Persons who are seriously affected also show symptoms such as yellowing of skin and whites of the eyes just similar to jaundice, an extremely enlarged liver and spleen, and accumulation of the fluid in the abdomen called as ascites.
The specific cause of hepatorenal syndrome is still unknown. Usually, it occurs in individuals with advanced liver disease, people who have dysfunction and scarring of the liver or cirrhosis. Individuals with HRS suffer from constriction of the blood vessels which provide nutrient supply to the kidneys. This results in decreased blood flow to the kidneys, leading to kidney dysfunction.
Major factor driving the global hepatorenal syndrome treatment market is rise in incidence rate of hepatorenal syndrome. Moreover, high research and development initiatives and increased awareness among people are boost the growth of the market. Furthermore, increasing government support for development of innovative treatment products for treating orphan diseases also contribute to the growth of the global hepatorenal syndrome treatment market.
The global hepatorenal syndrome treatment market can be classified based on type, treatment regimen, and end-user. In terms of type, the market can segmented into type 1 hepatorenal syndrome and type 2 hepatorenal syndrome. Based on treatment regimen, the global hepatorenal syndrome treatment market can be divided into medications and surgical care. The medications segment can be subdivided into vasopressin analogues, sympathomimetic agents, antioxidants, somatostatin analogs, antibiotics, and plasma volume expanders. The surgical care segment can be sub-segmented into peritoneovenous shunting, liver transplantation, surgical shunts, renal replacement therapy, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). In terms of end-user, the market can be categorized into hospitals, diagnostic centers, private clinics, academic & research institutes, and others.
Geographically, the global hepatorenal syndrome market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is the largest market for hepatorenal syndrome treatment products owing to high incidence and prevalence rate of liver diseases. Other factors contributing to the market are unhealthy eating and drinking habits, which directly relates to liver and kidney disorders. Various studies suggest that hepatorenal syndrome is common among 10% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis in the U.S. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2013, approximately 100,000 patients were diagnosed with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in the U.S. Moreover, the incidence of hepatorenal syndrome globally is similar to that in the U.S. This disease is not prevalent within any particular region or population. All ethnic groups and races, and both genders are equally affected. Asia Pacific is also a rapidly growing market driven by increase in health care infrastructure and improvement in reimbursement policy structures. Other factors propelling the market are increase in geriatric population, rise in disposable income, and government initiatives to support current health care policies.
Major companies and research institutes engaged in the development of hepatorenal syndrome treatment products are Cumberland Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ferring International Center S.A., Ikaria, Inc., Lahey Clinic Foundation, Inc., Orphan Therapeutics LLC, and the University of Turin.
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