Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are phosphotransferase enzymes that have the ability to transfer a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to tyrosine amino acid residue which creates ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and phosphotyrosine. Phosphorylation of proteins triggers modifications in their enzymatic activity which can cause precise chemical responses. There are two classes of PTKs: cytoplasmic non-receptor PTKs (NRTKs) and transmembrane receptor PTKs. These non-receptor tyrosine kinases are non-specific, protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) which are generally found in all metazoans. Hence, NRTKs are vital components of signaling pathways which have the ability to regulate important cellular functions such as apoptosis, survival, proliferation, and cell differentiation. Non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors are small molecules, generally aromatic. These are appropriate drug targets for inflammatory, proliferative, neurodegenerative, and metabolic diseases. These non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors bind to catalytic site of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which prevents phosphorylation and helps to regulate cytostatic activity. The major classes of tyrosine kinases include Abelson murine leukemia (Abl) and Janus kinases (JAKs) & Src. The phosphorylation activity of non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors is reversible, hence it is commonly used to regulate intracellular signals.
The simple difference between the non-receptor tyrosine kinase and receptor tyrosine kinase is the location. Non-receptor tyrosine kinase exist in cytoplasm of the cell, while receptor tyrosine kinase exist on the surface of cells, particularly cell membrane. In the past few years, non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (NRTKs) have emerged as one of the most encouraging therapeutics in different types of cancers. The advancements in the technical and theoretical knowledge of mechanism & functions of cell cycle, its enzymes helps to understand pathways for normal & tumorous cells growth, has led to substantial developments inhibitors which has the ability to stop or prevent cancerous cells growth in effected cells.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (NRTKs) are considered capable and highly effective targeted therapy which aim to target malignant growth at its root and proliferative level. Additionally, these have created large opportunities for the pharma industry to research on variations seen in non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor mechanisms and their precise role for the different types of metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders.
A robust clinical pipeline offers a promising situation in terms of future of precise therapeutic response from NRTKs. Increase in investments in research & development in the pharma & biotech sector has led to development of new innovative compounds, which are showing positive results in clinical trials. Some of the inhibitors are projected to be blockbuster drugs once launched in the market. The global non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors market has significant growth potential. Moreover, the market is unexploited, particularly in developing countries such as India, Brazil, and Singapore. These countries are likely to witness high demand for effective drugs for inflammatory, proliferative, neurodegenerative, and metabolic diseases.
Geographically, the global non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominates the global market due to robust health care infrastructure, favorable reimbursement policies, presence of key players, and high acceptance of new techniques. Europe and Asia Pacific are the other major markets for non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The market in Europe is anticipated to grow at a rapid pace due to brand loyalty, high investments in research and development by pharma companies, and existence of key players with differential offerings in the region. Developing countries such as India and Brazil have regulatory hurdles such as approvals for oncology trial procedures. Additionally, spending on coverage of medicines for cancer treatments and health insurance policies restrict usage of new technology in disease treatment.
Key players operating in the global non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors market are Array Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myer Squibb, Novartis, Merck, and Pfizer, among others.
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