Myoclonus is a symptom rather than a disease. It is described as involuntary jerking of a muscle. It is caused by sudden muscle contractions known as positive myoclonus. Myoclonus caused by muscle relaxation is called negative myoclonus. Myoclonic jerks could occur in sequence, alone and in a pattern, or without pattern. Myoclonus can be classified into action myoclonus, cortical reflex myoclonus, palatal myoclonus, essential myoclonus, reticular reflex myoclonus, progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME), sleep myoclonus, and stimulus-sensitive myoclonus. Action myoclonus is muscular jerking triggered or intensified by voluntary movement.
Myoclonus can be caused by underlying conditions such as shakes or spasms due to anxiety or exercise, infant muscle twitching during sleep or after feeding, lipid storage disease, chemical or drug poisoning, autoimmune inflammatory conditions, Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple system atrophy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and stroke. People with myoclonus often describe their symptoms and signs as shakes or spasms and jerks that are brief, shock-like, sudden, involuntary, variable in intensity and frequency, and sometimes severe enough to interfere with eating, speaking, or walking. Neurology professionals diagnose myoclonus with the help of these signs and symptoms. They also use electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory tests such as autoimmune disease, kidney or liver disease, metabolic disorders, and others. Generally, myoclonus is managed by tranquilizers and anticonvulsants. Levetiracetam (Keppra), primidone (Mysoline), and valproic acid (Depakene) are anticonvulsants that reduce myoclonus symptoms. Clonazepam is a more common tranquilizer used for myoclonus. According to PubMed literature review, prevalence of myoclonus was 4 cases per 100,000 in Japan in 2011. Prevalence of the condition increases with age.
Increase in research and development, introduction of novel disease therapies, rise in demand for effective therapies among patients, and surge in disease prevalence are projected to fuel the growth of the global myoclonus drugs market. Rise in prevalence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, neurovascular, and arthritis, and increase in health care insurance coverage are the other factors likely to accelerate the growth of the global myoclonus drugs market.
The global myoclonus drugs market can be segmented based on drug type, distribution channel, and region. In terms of drug type, the market can be categorized into tranquilizers, botulinum toxin (Botox), and anticonvulsants. Botulinum toxin can help treat myoclonus where a discrete body part is affected. Based on distribution channel, the global myoclonus drugs market can be classified into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies. In term of revenue, the hospital pharmacies segment dominated the global myoclonus drugs market in 2016.
Geographically, the global myoclonus drugs market can be segmented into five major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is the leading market for myoclonus drugs. In terms of revenue, the U.S. holds a major share of the market in North America. The market in Europe is expanding rapidly due to high prevalence of myoclonus in the region. The myoclonus drugs market in Asia Pacific and Latin America is projected to expand significantly in the near future. Developing economies such as China and India are anticipated to contribute to the growth of the market in Asia Pacific between 2017 and 2025 due to better health care infrastructure, economic growth, increase in the number of insurance payers, growth of the private health care sector, and rise in awareness among the people. Brazil and Mexico dominate the market in Latin America. South Africa, Turkey, and other developing countries in Middle East & Africa contribute to the growth of the myoclonus drugs market in MEA.
Key players operating in the myoclonus drugs market include Allergan plc, Pfizer, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Wockhardt Ltd.., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Novartis AG, Johnson & Johnson, Cephalon, Inc., Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., Sanofi S.A.
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