Erythropoietin, also known as hemopoietin or hematopoietin, is a cytokine glycoprotein secreted by kidneys in response to cellular hypoxia. In kidneys, interstitial fibroblasts, in close association with the peritubular capillary and proximal convoluted tubule, are engaged in the production of erythropoietin. Erythropoietin is essential for the stimulation of production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. For development of erythroid lineage from multipotent progenitors, erythropoietin is the primary growth-stimulating factor. Though kidney is the primary site of production of erythropoietin, the extra-renal site for its production is liver. Erythropoietin’s mechanism of action includes binding to the erythropoietin receptor on the red blood cell progenitor and, in turn, activating the JAK2 signaling cascade. Erythropoietin is also produced exogenously by using the recombinant DNA technology in cell culture and these are known as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA). For medical purposes, erythropoietin produced by using the rDNA technology is employed. It is used for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia in cancer patients; inflammatory bowel syndrome; anemia caused by chronic kidney disease; and myelodysplasia caused during the treatment of cancer.
The increasing prevalence of cancer and kidney disorders and anemia caused by these diseases contribute to the increase in demand for erythropoietin treatment. This promotes the market growth. The growing population of patients, favorable reimbursement scenario, and growing commercialization of erythropoietin biosimilars drive the market. In addition, rapid product approvals, rising demand for cost-effective treatment options, increase in the disposable income in developed regions, and increasing government focus on offering better health care facilities are other factors fueling the erythropoietin market. However, side-effects associated with erythropoietin drugs such as convulsions, rapid increase in the blood pressure, allergic reactions at the site of injection, and damage to the liver and the pancreas as well as high cost of rDNA manufacturing of these drugs might hamper the market during the forecast period.
The global erythropoietin market can be segmented in terms of drug class, product, application, distribution channel, and geography. Based on drug class, the market can be segmented into biologics and biosimilars. Based on product, the market can be divided into Epoetin-alfa, Epoetin-beta, Darbepoetin-alfa, and others. In terms of application, the erythropoietin market can be classified into oncology, hematology, renal diseases, and others. Based on distribution channel, the market can be segmented into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, specialty pharmacies, and others. Among drug classes, the biosimilars segment is anticipated to witness high growth during the forecast period, due to the increasing preference for cost-effective modes of treatment.
Geographically, the global erythropoietin market can be segregated into five regions viz. North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America held the leading share in terms of revenue in 2016 and the trend is anticipated to continue during the forecast period. High growth of the market in the region can be attributed to rapid product approvals, growing usage of biosimilars, well-established health care infrastructure, and favorable reimbursement scenario in the region. Europe is anticipated to be the second-largest market for erythropoietin during the forecast period. However, sluggish growth of the economy of the region might have an impact on growth of the market in Europe between 2017 and 2025. The market in Asia Pacific is anticipated to register a significantly high CAGR from 2017 to 2025, owing to factors such as increasing patient population, growing government focus on enhancement of health care facilities, rising prevalence of cancer and kidney diseases, and increasing number of product approvals in Japan.
Leading players operating in the global erythropoietin market are Amgen Inc., Hospira Inc., LG Life Sciences Ltd., Johnson & Johnson, Oche Diagnostics, Intas Pharmaceuticals, Roche, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Biocon, Celltrion, Inc., and Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd.
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