A kidney infection, also known as pyelonephritis, is a type of urinary tract infection, wherein one or both kidneys are infected. The infection is caused by bacteria or a virus that commonly begins to infect urinary bladder and moves up to one or both the kidneys. Signs or symptoms of pyelonephritis can vary depending on age and could include confusion & back pain, chills & high fever, nausea & vomiting, back, side, and groin pain, and painful urination. Predisposing factors of pyelonephritis include kidney stones, weakened immune system, structural problems of the urinary tract, urine reflux problems, and damage to nerves around the bladder.

The global pyelonephritis treatment market is projected to witness strong growth during the forecast period due to high prevalence and incidence rates of pyelonephritis disorder across the globe. Around 200,000 hospitalizations for acute pyelonephritis are reported in the U.S. each year. Hence, a large population base with kidney infection across the globe is expected to drive the global pyelonephritis treatment market during the forecast period. High per capita health care expenditure in developed countries, availability of technologically advanced hemodialysis systems, and favorable medical reimbursement in developed countries are anticipated to boost the pyelonephritis treatment market during the forecast period. Moreover, rise in demand for kidney care centers in countries such as India, China, Brazil, and South Korea is expected to drive the global pyelonephritis treatment market.

The global pyelonephritis treatment market can be segmented based on treatment algorithm and region. In terms of treatment algorithm, the pyelonephritis treatment market can be classified into initial pyelonephritis, acute pyelonephritis, and ongoing pyelonephritis. The pipeline of drugs for nephrotic syndrome is relatively small, with around 15 products in active development at public and private research centers and industries. Antibiotics is the initial treatment for pyelonephritis. Several new antibiotics are expected to be launched during the forecast period. These novel drugs will not only provide additional treatment options, especially for pyelonephritis treatment, but also drive market size, as these products will have higher price points than the generic products currently dominating the pyelonephritis treatment market. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance, particularly of strains with resistance, will drive pyelonephritis treatment market size, as treatment options for those infections will include non-generic antibiotics. Companies are presenting their pipeline molecule results in their annual meetings and conferences. In May 2018, Melinta Therapeutics highlighted Vabomere at making a difference in infectious diseases (MAD-ID) 2018 Annual Meeting. In August 2018, Entasis Therapeutics announced a positive topline results from phase II of ETX2514SUL in patients with complicated urinary tract infections including acute pyelonephritis. 

In terms of region, North America dominated the global pyelonephritis treatment market in 2017. The market in the region is primarily powered by the U.S., which has witnessed highest incidence of the disease. State-of-the-art health care facilities that offer latest and the best treatment, high per capita health care spending among people, and awareness about available treatments for pyelonephritis augment the market in the region. Europe is another key market for pyelonephritis treatment. Germany and the U.K. are the major markets in the region. Greater degree of awareness with respect to overall kidney health has led to a large number of people undergoing screening for kidney diseases. Emerging economies such as India and China are the key markets for pyelonephritis treatment in Asia Pacific. Rise in population contributed to the growth of the pyelonephritis treatment market in the region.

Major players having pyelonephritis treatment products in the pipeline are Merck & Co, Inc., Wockhardt Ltd., AstraZeneca plc, Entasis Therapeutics, Inc., Iterum Therapeutics plc, Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Nabriva Therapeutics plc, MerLion Pharmaceuticals Pte. Ltd., and Melinta Therapeutics, Inc.

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