Penicillin is a class of antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections. Penicillin antibiotics are bactericidal agents that inhibit the bacterial cell wall synthesis and induce a bacterial autolytic effect. Different types of penicillin antibiotics are available for various types of bacterial infections, each specific to particular bacterial organism. Penicillin is active against various forms of streptococci, Listeria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus. E. coli, pneumococci, Salmonella, certain strains of staphylococci, and other types of bacteria. These are available in different dosage forms such as tablets, capsules, and powder for injections and suspension. Penicillin is used to treat sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, ear infections, skin infections, and other bacterial infections.

Increase in incidence of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, gonorrhea, and syphilis is a major factor driving the global penicillin market. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 101,567 cases of syphilis were reported in the U.S. in 2017, yielding a rate of 31.4 cases per 100,000 population. Moreover, urinary tract infections and other contagious diseases are rising across the globe. This is projected to fuel the demand for penicillin antibiotics in the next few years. Increase in awareness campaigns by government and private organizations for the control of bacterial infectious diseases and rise in investment in research and development activities are the other factors anticipated to boost the growth of the global penicillin market during the forecast period. However, emergence of antibiotic resistance by various species of bacteria and adverse reactions including hypersensitivity reactions, allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, and rashes associated with intake of penicillin are expected to restrain the penicillin market in the near future. Certain strains of staphylococci are resistant to penicillin, making it challenging to treat bacterial infections. 

The global penicillin market can be segmented based on drug class, route of administration, indication, distribution channel, and region. In terms of drug class, the market can be categorized into natural penicillin, aminopenicillin, beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillinase-resistant penicillin, and anti-pseudomonal penicillin. Based on route of administration, the global penicillin market can be classified into oral, intravenous, and intramuscular. In terms of indication, the penicillin market can be divided into urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, meningitis, respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and others. Based on distribution channel, the market can be categorized into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies. 

The global penicillin market can be segmented into five major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is projected to account for dominant share of the global market between 2018 and 2026. This is attributed to increase in incidence of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis in the U.S. According to CDC, the country reported 555,608 cases of gonorrhea in 2017, accounting for 171.9 cases per 100,000 population and an increase of 67% since 2013. The market in Europe is expected to grow at a rapid pace during the forecast period. Increase in incidence and mortality rate of infectious diseases including pneumonia in emerging markets such as India and China is likely to drive demand for penicillin antibiotics in the next few years. Favorable government support for raising awareness among people about infectious diseases and rise in the number of antibiotic manufacturers in these countries are anticipated to boost the growth of the penicillin market in Asia Pacific. 

Key players operating in the global penicillin market are Pfizer, Inc., Merck Co. & Inc., Sanofi Aventis, Astellas Pharma, Inc., Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd, Novartis AG, and GlaxoSmithKline plc. These players have adopted organic and in-organic growth strategies to expand product portfolio and strengthen market foothold.

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