Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis acts as one of the most prominent immune checkpoints responsible for reduced antitumor immune responses. These immune checkpoint proteins have been of profound interest to researchers as these are found to prolong tumor cell survival. Hence, oncologists consider PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors bear potential in improving antitumor immunity. The drive for PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market is thus making strides on the back of healthcare industry relentlessly focused on improving immuno-oncology therapy.
More than a thousand of clinical trials over the years have been made on inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction for numerous cancer types. Search for valuable therapeutic target has centered chiefly on developing antibodies that target PD-1 and PD-L1.
Notable cancer types that are seeing surge in investments in the PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market relate to finding better immuno-oncology therapies for melanoma, nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, and renal cell cancer. The focus on optimizing anticancer potential has led to more than one FDA-approved PD-L1 inhibitors, broadening the potential in the PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market.
Search for Effacious Therapeutic Targets
Industry investments on improving the efficacy of T cell-based immunotherapies in oncology kindle industry interest in PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market. The need for better therapeutic targets that can be used alongside monotherapies such as immuno-oncology combinational therapy (IOT) is spurring investments. Immune-related adverse events associated with IOT have led to $300 000 in per quality adjusted life year, as published in an article in the Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy.
Need to Reduce Mortality of Advanced or Metastatic Cancer
Per an estimate in Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN, more than 9.56 million dry from various cancers every year. Interactions between PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 have been a key mechanism for tumors to progress, disseminate, and metastasize, eventually reducing the survival rates in cancer patients world over. Thus, PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market has seen special interest in developing the efficacy as well as safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in advanced or metastatic cancer.
PD-L-1 Prominently Lucrative Segment
Rapid rise in FDA approval of PD-L1 inhibitors have brought this as a highly lucrative segment in the PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market. Further, vast range of scientific literature pertaining to assessing the value of PD-L-1 in prognosis and patients’ survival also offers undercurrent to industry interest.
Efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Solid Tumors Shaping Competitive Contours
In recent years, a number of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are licensed by the U.S. FDA to treat a variety of cancers. Key antibodies in focus for proponents of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market are nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab. A number of phase II/III trials of atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab are in progress, opening new ways of upregulation of PD-L1 expression. This will expand the overall revenue potential in the PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors market. Oncologists are fervently studying mechanisms by which PD-L1 are upregulated as a means of developing valuable therapeutic targets for melanoma, ovarian, lung, and renal carcinomas.
A growing number of phase 2 trial, phase 3 trial, and randomized trials have been conducted on efficacy and toxicity of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in solid tumors, especially the role of PD-L1 ligands.
Studies Galore on Improving Immunotherapies
A recent study (February 2020) across numerous Universities in China looked at trial-level meta-analysis of the development of these inhibitors in advanced solid tumors. Another similar study looked at the role of several immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in homeostasis and eliminating of tumor cells. The focus was to minimize the adverse events (AEs) associated with immunotherapies involving anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.
Some of the prominent lucrative geographic markets are North America and Asia. The healthcare industry has seen plethora of oncology studies by researchers in the U.S., a number of which are focused on developing long-term response of anticancer therapy. Another trend that cements the attractiveness of the North America PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors market. Focus on reducing the mortality of solid and hematopoietic cancers in Asia has also spurred the generation of new revenue channels.