Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is any method of allowing a patient in pain to administer his/her own pain relief. PCA is equipped with a computerized pump which is often used by patients recovering from surgery. It is employed for post-operative management. Its method of pain control provides patients with the power to control their pain. PCA is also beneficial for patients who find difficulty taking medication by mouth. Some of the drugs administered by PCA infusion are morphine, hydromorphie, and fentanyl. PCA pump is a computerized pump that contains a syringe of medication, which delivers a small amount of medication in a constant flow. In some cases, the dose is set and an additional dose can be administered by patients themselves just by pressing a button. It is easy to be used by parents and nurses for children aged 6 years or below. Key advantages of PCA include greater patient satisfaction, fewer post-operative complications, less sedation, improved quality of recovery, and less use of medication (as doses are set). Disadvantages include possibility of underdose or overdose of medication, nurse assistance required in case of children aged less than 5 years, difficulty to use in patients that are critically ill (as it may cause nausea, itching, and constipation).
The patient-controlled analgesia can be administered by any of these routes: oral, intravenous, epidural, inhaled, nasal spray, and transcutaneous. Patient-controlled analgesia is most commonly used for intravenous opioid demand dosing. Epidural PCA is administered in the epidural space to women in labor and ill cancer patients. Oral PCA is for an over-the-counter or prescription drug. In 1968, Abbott Lab. developed an inhaler device called Analgizer. It was observed to be safe and effective in obstetric and bone fracture patients. In transcutaneous delivery, iontophoretic systems are used. PCA has two modes of administration viz. demand dosing and continuous infusion. Furthermore, demand dosing has variables viz. demand dose, initial loading dose, lockout interval, infusion rate, and 1-hour and 4-hour limits. A highly undesirable event associated with PCA is PCA with proxy (when someone other than the patient presses the button).
The primary factors which sustain the demand for PCA infusion pumps is technological advancements; rising incidence of chronic illnesses such as pain, diabetes, and cancer; advanced safety features; favorable reimbursements; portability of the system; scope for infusion of multiple medications at the same time. A major factor hampering the demand is patient medication errors with infusion pumps leading to product recalls. Secondly, lack of awareness about using advanced infusion systems and strict regulations imposed on product approval are likely to hamper the market. Based on geography, the PCA pumps market has been segmented into China, the U.S., Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, and India. Based on product, the market has been divided into electronic PCA pumps and mechanical PCA pumps. Based on end-user, the market has been segregated into ambulatory surgical centers, hospitals, home care setting, and others. Based on application, the market can be segmented into diabetes, cancer, pain, and others.
The market in Asia Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ) is led by India and China, due to rising demand for health care, increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, and awareness about new health care technologies in the two countries. North America holds the largest market share. However, recently, the market share held by North America has slightly decreased due to saturation of devices in the region. The market in Europe is expanding due to growing elderly population and recovery of the region from economic crisis. Among end-users, the hospitals segment dominates the global market and the trend is expected to continue until 2026. On basis of product Mechanical PCA over normal PCA have fine adjustment of parameter and record is automatically saved. But it have certain drawback like preparation of the equipment and drug, observation of patient condition, changing of various setting, data extraction.
Top players operating in the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps market are Smiths Group plc, Baxter International, Ace Medical Co. Ltd, Hospira (Pfizer Inc.), Fresenius Kabi Group, Terumo Corporation, Becton Dickinson (BD Alaris™), and Micrel Medical Devices.
This study by TMR is all-encompassing framework of the dynamics of the market. It mainly comprises critical assessment of consumers' or customers' journeys, current and emerging avenues, and strategic framework to enable CXOs take effective decisions.
Our key underpinning is the 4-Quadrant Framework EIRS that offers detailed visualization of four elements:
- Customer Experience Maps
- Insights and Tools based on data-driven research
- Actionable Results to meet all the business priorities
- Strategic Frameworks to boost the growth journey
The study strives to evaluate the current and future growth prospects, untapped avenues, factors shaping their revenue potential, and demand and consumption patterns in the global market by breaking it into region-wise assessment.
The following regional segments are covered comprehensively:
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Latin America
- The Middle East and Africa
The EIRS quadrant framework in the report sums up our wide spectrum of data-driven research and advisory for CXOs to help them make better decisions for their businesses and stay as leaders.
Below is a snapshot of these quadrants.
1. Customer Experience Map
The study offers an in-depth assessment of various customers’ journeys pertinent to the market and its segments. It offers various customer impressions about the products and service use. The analysis takes a closer look at their pain points and fears across various customer touchpoints. The consultation and business intelligence solutions will help interested stakeholders, including CXOs, define customer experience maps tailored to their needs. This will help them aim at boosting customer engagement with their brands.
2. Insights and Tools
The various insights in the study are based on elaborate cycles of primary and secondary research the analysts engage with during the course of research. The analysts and expert advisors at TMR adopt industry-wide, quantitative customer insights tools and market projection methodologies to arrive at results, which makes them reliable. The study not just offers estimations and projections, but also an uncluttered evaluation of these figures on the market dynamics. These insights merge data-driven research framework with qualitative consultations for business owners, CXOs, policy makers, and investors. The insights will also help their customers overcome their fears.
3. Actionable Results
The findings presented in this study by TMR are an indispensable guide for meeting all business priorities, including mission-critical ones. The results when implemented have shown tangible benefits to business stakeholders and industry entities to boost their performance. The results are tailored to fit the individual strategic framework. The study also illustrates some of the recent case studies on solving various problems by companies they faced in their consolidation journey.
4. Strategic Frameworks
The study equips businesses and anyone interested in the market to frame broad strategic frameworks. This has become more important than ever, given the current uncertainty due to COVID-19. The study deliberates on consultations to overcome various such past disruptions and foresees new ones to boost the preparedness. The frameworks help businesses plan their strategic alignments for recovery from such disruptive trends. Further, analysts at TMR helps you break down the complex scenario and bring resiliency in uncertain times.
The report sheds light on various aspects and answers pertinent questions on the market. Some of the important ones are:
1. What can be the best investment choices for venturing into new product and service lines?
2. What value propositions should businesses aim at while making new research and development funding?
3. Which regulations will be most helpful for stakeholders to boost their supply chain network?
4. Which regions might see the demand maturing in certain segments in near future?
5. What are the some of the best cost optimization strategies with vendors that some well-entrenched players have gained success with?
6. Which are the key perspectives that the C-suite are leveraging to move businesses to new growth trajectory?
7. Which government regulations might challenge the status of key regional markets?
8. How will the emerging political and economic scenario affect opportunities in key growth areas?
9. What are some of the value-grab opportunities in various segments?
10. What will be the barrier to entry for new players in the market?
Note: Although care has been taken to maintain the highest levels of accuracy in TMR’s reports, recent market/vendor-specific changes may take time to reflect in the analysis.