Instrument transformers are electrical devices used to transform or isolate current or voltage levels with high accuracy. They are used in AC (alternate current) systems for measurement of electrical parameters such as current, voltage, energy, power factor, and frequency. They are also used for protection of power system with combination of protective relays. The primary function of instrument transformer is to lower the AC system’s current and voltage. The measuring instruments generally have low measuring quantities, about 5A to 110A; however, with the use of instrument transformers, measurement of large electrical quantities becomes possible by coupling instrument transformer with general electrical measuring devices. The advantages of instrument transformer include standardization of measuring instruments, reducing cost of measuring instruments, easy replacement, reducing electrical insulation requirements for measuring instruments, assuring safety of operators, providing multiple connections through a single transformer to power system, and consumption of less power. An instrument transformer must be capable of withstanding high levels of stress in all climatic conditions. The global instrument transformer market is segmented based on type, capacity, and applications.
In terms of type, the instrument transformer market can be classified into current and voltage. The current instrument transformer is used to transform a primary current quantity to a secondary value, in terms of phase and magnitude. The primary winding of a current instrument transformer is connected in series with the power circuit with thick winding and few turns, while the secondary winding with thin winding and several turns. The current segment can be further divided into wound primary type, bushing type, and window current transformer. The voltage instrument transformer is used to lower the voltage of a power system to a level where the values can be handled by small rating measuring devices. The primary winding of a voltage instrument transformer is connected in parallel across the line with large number of turns, while the secondary is connected to a voltmeter with few number of turns. The voltage instrument transformer can categorized into shell type, dry type, and oil type. Although the current and voltage instrument transformers have their own set of applications, the voltage instrument transformers constitutes the major share of the instrument transformer market due to their ease of construction and ability to handle high capacity.
Based on capacity, the instrument transformer market can be segregated into high, medium, and low. High capacity instrument transformers are generally used for outdoor applications and have the dominant share of instrument transformers market.
By application, the instrument transformer market can be segmented into indoor and outdoor applications. The outdoor applications segment accounts for the leading share of instrument transformer market due to the rise in demand for long-distance power transmission in developing nations. The electricity produced in developing nations is located near to urban areas. The power has to be distributed to rural areas as well. Thus, the usage of instrument transformer plays an important role in the transmission of power.
Key players operating in the global instrument transformers market are ABB Group (Switzerland), Crompton Greaves (India), General Electric (the U.S.), Schneider Electric (France), China XD Electric Co., Ltd. (China), Huayi Electric Co., Ltd. (China), Nissin Electric (Japan), CGS Instrument Transformers (Italy), Abaft Middle East Transformer Ind. LLc (the UAE), etc.
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