A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other cell organelles enclosed within membranes. Nucleus of eukaryotes contains genetic material and the name “eukaryote” has been derived from the Greek name of nucleus (eu). Other membrane bound cell organelles include mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes and lysosomes. Plant’s cells and algae contain chloroplast in addition to all the aforementioned cell organelles. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon Eukaryota or Eukarya. All multi-cellular living beings are eukaryotes, including plants, animals and fungi. In addition, many unicellular living beings such as protozoa also belong to Eukaryota taxon.
Protein expression forms a crucial part of proteomics which plays an essential role in research by assisting the expression of genetically engineered recombinant proteins in various cells. Proteins are regulated and synthesized depending upon the functional need in the cell. DNA stores the basic design for proteins and these are decoded by transcriptional processes to produce mRNA. Then the message coded by mRNA help in the synthesis of a protein. Eukaryotic expression systems and prokaryotic expression systems form basic components of protein expression systems. Among these two, prokaryotic expression systems accounts for the largest share by revenue however, eukaryotic expression systems market is expected to grow at the highest CAGR.
In eukaryotes, the processes of transcription occurs in the nucleus and translation (protein synthesis), occurs in the cytoplasm of cell. Transcription is considered to be the first step of gene expression, in which RNA is synthesized. Translation is a process in which protein is synthesized from RNA. Eukaryotic expression systems are the artificial systems in which the aforementioned processes are performed for various medical purposes such as drugs development. Eukaryotic expression systems are extensively used for the manufacturing of recombinant proteins as research tools and therapeutics. Extensively used eukaryotic expression systems can be categorized as CHO systems and mammalian cell systems.
The choice of suitable eukaryotic expression system depends mainly on biological and biochemical properties of the protein that is of research interest. For instance, expression of the cytokine human Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (hu-LIF) uses various eukaryotic expression systems, namely in Sp2/0, MEL, CHO, COS and insect cells. The market for eukaryotic expression systems can include expression vectors, reagents and competent cells that are used for transfection.
The market for eukaryotic expression systems is witnessing high growth rate during the forecast period 2014 to 2020 owing to rising number of complex diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Therapeutics for such diseases can be developed with the usage of eukaryotic expression systems. Hence, this will enhance the demand for same and in turn assist in the growth of this market. In addition, increasing research and development for developing more advanced eukaryotic expression systems will further favors the growth of this market.
Increasing growth of pharmaceutical industry is also expected to support the growth of eukaryotic expression systems market. Likewise, the development in the proteomics and biologics market will drive the research in protein expression and hence will propel the growth of eukaryotic expression systems market. The major players operating in the eukaryotic expression systems market include Agilent Technologies, Inc., Promega Corporation, New England BioLabs, Inc., Bio-Rad Laboratories, Merck Millipore, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, QIAGEN, Jena Bioscience GmbH, Takara Bio, Inc. and Life Technologies Corporation among other significant players across the globe.
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