Cytokines are produced by broad range of cells including cells of immune system of human body with respect to complex immune responses. Cytokines aid in intercellular communication in immune response because they are cell signaling molecules and trigger the movement of cells toward sites of inflammation, infection and trauma. Cytokines can be categorized as peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. Cytokines and their receptors are used in various treatment therapies for inflammatory and immune disorders, infectious diseases (such as HIV and HCV), and oncology; due to their ability to boost immune responses.
The market for cytokine based therapies and inhibitors has impressive growth prospects, majorly due to multi-faceted use of cytokines in diagnostic, therapeutic, and prophylactic applications and increased feasibility of chemical synthesis of cytokines. On the contrary, factors such as short half-lives of drug, lack of target-specific treatment and technical expertise, high cost involved in new product development, and high therapy cost may restrain the market for cytokines in the next few years. Cytokines have inherently short half-life, which necessitates prolonged administration of cytokine therapies. This is a major problem in maintaining an effective dose over a long period. This becomes even greater issue when cytokine is administered systematically. In the meantime, cancer immunotherapy has progressed in the area of specificity, where the cytokine therapy cannot possibly improve. This is perhaps the biggest drawback of the cytokine therapy. Development of cytokine-based therapies offers lucrative growth opportunities to market players, as it is one of the prominent areas of immunotherapies. Roche Diagnostics, Immunochemistry Technologies LLC, and Merck/Schering Plough are some of the companies operating in the immunotherapies market.
The global cytokine based therapies and inhibitors market has been segmented in terms of cytokine type, therapeutic application, and geography. In terms of cytokine type, the market has been segmented into tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF drugs), interleukins (IL), interferon (IFN), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and chemokine. Based on therapeutic application, the market has been categorized into cancer & malignancies, inflammatory & immune disorders (asthma/airway inflammation, arthritis), infectious diseases (such as HIV and HCV), and others. In terms of geography, the global cytokines market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of World.
Interferons are induced in response to viral infections. INTRON A (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.) and Pegasys (Genentech, Inc.) are some of the approved brands of cytokine interferon. Tumor necrosis factors are basically involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis and is instrumental in genesis of liver, cachexia, and anemia by activating platelets. Anti-TNF drugs treat inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), and psoriasis. These drugs block tumor necrosis factor (TNF), an inflammation-causing substance, and thereby, reduce inflammation and stop disease progression.
Major players are developing and adding cytokine drugs to their portfolios. In July 2017, Merck launched a biosimilar anti TNF drug RENFLEXIS. This drug is the second FDA approval for a biosimilar of its original biologic medicine Remicade (infliximab) developed by Johnson & Johnson. The first biosimilar was Pfizer and Celltrion’s Inflectra, which was approved in July 2016.
Key players operating in the global cytokine based therapies and inhibitors market are AbbVie Inc., GlaxoSmithKline LLC, Eli Lilly and Company, Genentech, Inc., Roche Diagnostics, Immunochemistry Technologies LLC, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Amgen Inc., Novartis, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Sanofi, Teva, and Genentech, Inc.
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