Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that studies the structure, function, and evolution of chromosomes. Chromosomes are genetic materials that are present in tissues and cells. They have different structures and banding patterns. Cytogenetic maps are used to arrange all the chromosomes based on their banding patterns. Any change in the banding pattern of chromosomes depicts abnormalities or genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia, cancer, Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and others. Various techniques are used for cytogenetics such as karyotyping, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The biological application of cytogenetics includes the detection of numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, analysis of cancer, genetic testing, study of genotoxicity, prenatal diagnosis, and others. 

The cytogenetics market is primarily driven by an increase in the prevalence of genetic disorders and cancer. For instance, according to WHO, cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and cause an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Low- and middle-income countries reported approximately 70% deaths due to the disease. In addition, rise in health care spending, increase in the prevelance of chronic diseases, and a favorable reimbursement scenario are expected to boost the expansion of the global cytogenetics market in the coming years. Furthermore, existing market players deploy advanced techniques and strategies to come up with novel ways of cytogenetic analysis. This is expected to drive the market in the near future. However, the cytogenetic procedure is time consuming and involves high cost of analysis. These factors are expected to restrain the market during the forecast period. Nevertheless, emerging nations such as China and India are expected to provide attractive market opportunities to the market during the forecast period.  

The global cytogenetics market can be segmented based on product, technique, application, end-user, and region. In terms of product, the market can be classified into test kits, media and reagents, probes, consumables, instruments, and software & services. Based on technique, the market can be categorized into fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), karyotyping, immunohistochemistry, and others. The comparative genomic hybridization segment is expected to expand at a rapid CAGR during the forecast period, owing to an increase in the transition from FISH to array-based CGH. The comparative genomic hybridization segment can be further divided into array-based CGH and standard CGH. In terms of application, the market can be segmented into cancer, genetic disorders, personalized medicines, and others. Based on end-user, the market can be categorized into biotechnology & pharmaceutical companies, research laboratories, academic research institutes, and others. 

In terms of region, the global cytogenetics market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominated the cytogenetics market in 2017 with a prominent market share. This is owing to technological advancements and significant adoption of technologically advanced products, presence of a large number of manufacturers in the U.S., and high health care spending in the region. According to the National Cancer Institute, in 2016, there were an estimated 15.5 million cancer survivors in the U.S.. The number of cancer survivors is expected to increase to 20.3 million by 2026. Asia Pacific and Latin America are expected to be lucrative regions of the cytogenetics market due to the expansion of economies of countries in these regions, rise in population, increase in the incidence of cancer, and rise in awareness about and adoption of cytogenetic analysis among people in the regions. 

Key players operating in the global cytogenetics market include Applied Spectral Imaging, Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Empire Genomics, LLC., Agilent Technologies, Inc., Illumina, Inc., PerkinElmer Inc., Irvine Scientific., OPKO Health, Inc. (GeneDx.), Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., and Sysmex Corporation (Oxford Gene Technology).

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