Cyclosporines are calcineurin inhibitors belonging to the immunosuppressant agent class of drugs. It is a metabolite extracted from the Tolypocladium fungus. Cyclosporine is a potent immunosuppressive agent that prolongs existence of allogeneic transplants in the lungs, small intestines, pancreas, heart, skin, liver, kidneys, and bone marrow. Cyclosporine suppresses certain cell-mediated immune reactions such as allograft rejection, encephalomyelitis, Freund’s adjuvant arthritis, graft diseases, experimental allergy, and delayed hypersensitivity for a variety of organs and certain humoral immunity. Cyclosporine is sometimes prescribed for patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis in order to treat dry eye.
According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, more than 80 autoimmune diseases have been identified. Some of them are diabetes (type 1), lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease. Rise in the prevalence of these diseases drives the global cyclosporine drugs market. Increasing low birth weight associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis as an adult drive the cyclosporine drugs market. The exposure to solvents such as nail polish, cleaning supplies, paint thinners, and others increase the prevalence of allergic diseases thus increasing the demand of cyclosporine drugs.
Increasing inclination toward smoking leads to development of two types of rheumatoid arthritis. This, in turn, increases the demand for cyclosporine drugs. Exposure to granite, fine particles of crystalline silica, and other minerals increases the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. Laborers exposed to these minerals are particularly at a high risk. This factor augments the demand for cyclosporine drugs. However, certain adverse drug reactions caused by cyclosporine including renal dysfunction, tremors, hirsutism, hypertension, and gum hyperplasia restrain the market for cyclosporine drugs.
The global cyclosporine drugs market can be segmented based on drug form, patient type, indication type, end-user, and region. In terms of drug form, the market can be categorized into capsules, oral solutions, and injections. Based on patient type, the market can be classified into pediatric patients, adult patients, and geriatric patients. In terms of indication type, the market can be divided into transplant rejection prophylaxis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, autoimmune myasthenia gravis, dry eye, and others. Based on end-user, the market can be segmented into hospital pharmacies, specialized clinics, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies.
Geographically, the global cyclosporine drugs market can be categorized into Asia Pacific, Latin America, Europe, North America, and Middle East & Africa. North America holds a major market share owing to increasing geriatric population in the region. According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, each year more than 23.5 million people in the U.S. get affected by autoimmune diseases. Women are at a higher risk and the prevalence is high among Caucasians as well. These diseases are more common among African Americans and Hispanics. Latin America holds the second-largest share of the global cyclosporine drugs market. According to a study conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, mothers native to Brazil were exposed to an environmental contaminant, methyl mercury, by eating contaminated fish. Elevated levels of autoantibodies were found in the blood of these mothers as well as their fetuses. The market in Asia Pacific is anticipated to expand during the forecast period, owing to increasing prevalence of diabetes in the region.
Key players operating in the global cyclosporine drugs market are Allergan, Novartis AG, Apotex Inc., AbbVie, Inc., and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
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