Cardiomyocytes are the single nucleus cylindrical and elliptical cells of the heart measuring 80–120 µm in length and 20–30 µm in diameter. Cardiomyocytes have a limited capacity to regenerate. The lost cardiomyocytes are replaced by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts which form scar tissues. The formation of these non?contracting fibrous scars alters the workload of the myocardium and results in congestive Heart Failure (HF), which has serious implications on the patient in terms of life expectancy, and further causes hypertension, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction (heart attack). Hence, the regeneration of the myocardium is essential for the survival of patients. Cardiac patches are heart repair products that incorporate human cells to replace damaged heart tissue. The cardiac patch contracts and expands like a normal human heart tissue and is developed by tissue engineering approach which creates three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches for transfer of exogenous cells.
Cardiac patch, which is a suitable alternative to heart transplant, recovers the heart tissue and ensures its sound functioning. The integration of advanced features such as therapeutic control through drug release is another groundbreaking innovation which is expected to be introduced in the cardiac patches and marketed globally in the coming decade. Such improvisations and additional features to the existing cardiac patches is anticipated to fuel the growth of the global cardiac patch market significantly during the 2017-2025 period. However, the limitations of cardiac patches such as the formation of aneurysms and the obstruction of growth potential because of ingrown tissue and calcification leads to multiple replacements and can hamper the market growth.
The global cardiac patch market can be segmented based on end-users and region. In terms of end-users, the market can be divided into hospitals and specialty clinics. The hospitals segment is likely to hold a major share in the global cardiac patch market owing to higher number of procedures performed in hospitals and its continued rise each year. The hospitals segment is likely to continue to dominate the market during the forecast period owing to the availability of novel surgical procedures in these settings. Additionally, the number of hospitals is higher than other healthcare facilities/providers across the globe, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
In terms of region, the global cardiac patch market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America and Europe are expected to dominate and account for more than half the share of the global market through 2017 to 2025, owing to factors such as higher prevalence of heart disorders as compared to other countries coupled with high per capita healthcare expenditure and product availability. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are listed as a major cause of mortality across the world, and are also responsible for one in every three deaths in the U.S. According to the American Heart Association, 45% of all the deaths in the U.S. occurred due to heart diseases each year, and an estimated 92.1 million people in the U.S. were living with cardiovascular diseases in 2016.
The global cardiac patch market has few players currently but would witness market entry of some startups. The major players operating in the global cardiac patch market are W. L. Gore & Associates, BARD Peripheral Vascular, MAQUET Holding B.V. & Co. KG, and Taewoong Medical Co., Ltd. among others.