Bone cement, chemically known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), is used in a range of orthopedic and trauma surgeries for implant fixation. Constituents of bone cement include liquid MMA monomer and a powdered MMA-styrene co-polymer. PMMA functions as a space-filler that enables the creation of tight space to hold the implant against the bone and creates a gout. The bone cement does not have any intrinsic adhesive properties; however, it creates a close mechanical interlock between the bone surface and the implant. Other forms of bone cement available include glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), which are used in orthopedic and dental applications. CPCs find major applications in cranial and maxillo-facial surgeries owing to lower mechanical strength; and are bioresorbable and biocompatible. Furthermore, the cement is made radiopaque with the addition of contrasting agents such as barium sulfate (BaSO4) or zirconium dioxide (ZrO2). Currently, antibiotics are added to powder bone cement, which acts as a drug delivery system, delivering the drug to the site of surgery.
Based on viscosity, bone cement can be classified into low viscosity cement, medium viscosity cements, and high viscosity cements. The low viscosity cement remains in the runny state for longer durations as compared to other forms of cement. Medium viscosity cement offers versatility for various types of orthopedic procedures. High viscosity cement does not have a runny state and can be applied by hand to the implant surface. PMMA bone cement which is highly viscous finds applications in arthoplastic procedures such as knee, hip, and other joints for fixing the polymer or metallic implants into the bone. Strong growth of the bone cement market can be attributed to increasing prevalence of orthopedic disorders, rising number of accidents leading to bone and dental surgeries, growing pool of patient population owing to increase in geriatric population, and increasing life expectancy. In addition, significant technological advances contributing to the growth of antibiotics loaded bone cement which aid as the medium for dispensing the antibiotics to the site of action, contribute to the market growth in the forecast period. However, stringent regulations and certain drawbacks associated with bone cement in joint replacement such as cement fragmentation resulting in loosening of the prosthetics and periprosthetic osteolysis are likely to hamper the growth of the market.
The global bone cement market can be segmented based on application, end-user, and region. Based on application, the market can be segmented into orthopedic, dental, and others. The orthopedic segment is anticipated to dominate the market during the forecast period owing to increasing number of orthopedic disorders and rising accidents. In terms of end-user, the market can be segmented into hospitals, clinics, ambulatory surgical centers, and others. Hospitals dominated the global market in terms of revenue in 2016.
Geographically, the global bone cement market can be segmented into five regions: North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominated the market in terms of revenue in 2016 and the trend is anticipated to continue during the forecast period. Growth of the market in the region can be attributed to well-established health care infrastructure, rising prevalence of orthopedic disorders, and increasing geriatric population. Europe is anticipated to be the second largest market in terms of revenue. However, the market in the region is anticipated to experience sluggish growth attributed to the slow economic recovery. The market in Asia Pacific is anticipated to expand at a significantly high CAGR during the forecast period driven by India and China. Growth in these countries can be attributed to increase in patient pool and government focus on enhancing health care facilities.
Leading players in the global bone cement market include Stryker Corporation, DJO Global, Inc., Zimmer Biomet, Smith & Nephew plc, Osseon LLC, Cook Medical, TEKNIMED SA, Aegis Spine, Inc., Becton, Dickinson and Company, Medacta Companies, DePuy Synthes (part of Johnson & Johnson), Elite Surgical, Evolutis, Exactech, Inc., and Olympus Corporation.
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