Amniotic membrane comprises epithelium, basement membrane, and stroma. Collagen such as type VII are present in the conjunctival and corneal basement membranes. Amniotic membrane stroma is divided into three layers: compact layer, fibroblast layer, and an outer layer. Amniotic membranes were first used in eye care nearly 50 years ago.

Amniotic membrane is used in surgeries such as ocular surface reconstruction. These are obtained from the surface of human placenta. The amniotic membrane is then collected at tissue banks, where the donor tissue is processed for communicable disease. Amniotic membranes do not require a matching donor, as the donor tissue is absorbed by the recipient during the treatment process. These are used in the treatment of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, persistent epithelial defects such as ulcers, ocular surface reconstruction in individuals affected by burns, and others. Amniotic membranes have also been used for temporarily treating corneal defects until a proper graft is obtained. The amniotic membrane comprises a number of specialized proteins that makes these ideal for tissue regeneration, wound management, corneal diseases, and other treatment applications.

The two types of amniotic membranes commercially available are cryopreserved and dehydrated amniotic membrane. Cryopreservation helps to retain heavy-chain hyaluronic acids, growth factors, fibronectin, and collagen. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has anti-inflammatory effects. ProKera is a cryopreserved amniotic membrane which has been issued a class II medical device status by the FDA and has wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. Dehydrated amniotic membrane is preserved using vacuum along with low temperature heat to retain cellular components. A good example of dehydrated amniotic membrane is AmbioDisk applied directly on the ocular surface. Amniotic membrane dissolves within a period of one week. However, in case of ProKera device, a physician has to remove the ring once the membrane has dissolved.

Major drivers of the global amniotic membrane market are technological advancement in preservation techniques, increase in awareness in the developed and developing countries about the benefits associated with amniotic membrane treatment, rise in research activity along with robust government funding in promoting and product development, and surge in health care expenditure. Major restraints of the global amniotic membrane market are high treatment cost and low product availability in low income countries.

The global amniotic membrane market can be segmented based on product type, end-user, and region. In terms of product type, the market can be classified into cryopreserved amniotic membranes and dehydrated amniotic membranes. Based on end-user, the global amniotic membrane market can be divided into hospitals, specialized clinics, and others.

The global amniotic membrane market can be segmented into five regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is anticipated to dominate the global amniotic membrane market during the forecast period. The dominance of the region is largely attributed to higher awareness rate, presence of major manufacturers in the region, and better health care facilities. Europe is another major market for amniotic membrane. The market in Asia Pacific is expected to expand at a rapid pace during the forecast period. Increase in population and rise in incidence of ocular diseases are anticipated to drive the market in the region during the forecast period. The amniotic membrane market in Latin America and Middle East & Africa is anticipated to be driven by increase in government funding and rise in presence of major manufacturers in the region during the forecast period.

Key players in the global amniotic membrane market are Applied Biological, Tissue-Tech, Inc., Amniox Medical, Inc., Derma Sciences, Inc. (Integra LifeSciences Corporation), and Skye Biologics, Inc., among others.

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