Dementia is characterized by a set of symptoms which includes loss of mental abilities such as social abilities, thinking, memory and judgment. Dementia is severe enough to affect an individual’s daily activities and functions accompanied by certain changes in personality. A person with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop severity of dementia, termed as AIDS associated dementia or AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC). AIDS associated dementia is primarily caused by viral proteins that damage nerve cells directly by infecting cells of the brain and spinal cord. AIDS associated dementia occurs in six stages: normal, subclinical, mild, moderate, severe and end stage. Various symptoms associated with AIDS associated dementia are as follows:
- Difficulty in concentrating
- Slow thinking
- Behavioral changes
- Difficulty in learning new things
- Withdrawal from social activities
Additionally, a severe form of AIDS associated dementia includes symptoms such as speech problems, muscle weakness, vision problems, and loss of bowel control.
Certain imaging diagnostic tests are used for the diagnosis of AIDS associated dementia: CT scan or MRI of the head and position emission tomography (PET). Other tests include spinal tap, Electroencephalography (EEG), and neuropsychological testing.
Based on the treatment, the AIDS associated dementia market can be segmented as follows:
- Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): Highly active antiretroviral therapy is used for the control of HIV infection and also protects people with HIV-positive from developing AIDS dementia complex
- Drug medication: Certain drugs may improve the symptoms of AIDS associated dementia such as antidepressant medications are administered to treat depression and antipsychotic medications are used to treat severe aggression, hallucinations and delusions. Various novel drugs such as abacavir, efavirenz, d4T, and indinavir are used are used to lessen the extent of HIV infection in the cerebrospinal fluid of an individual.
Based on geography, the AIDS associated dementia market can be segmented into four major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World. Out of these regions, North America dominates the market followed by Europe. The factors which are driving the growth of AIDS associated dementia market are increasing incidences of HIV infection amongst the population, and growing awareness regarding the loss of mental abilities caused due to AIDS associated dementia. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 1.1 million people in the United Sates are affected with HIV infection. Asia Pacific is one of the most promising markets for the growth of AIDS associated dementia market as the region is developing at a rapid pace. The advantageous factors which would accentuate the growth of the market in Asia Pacific are constantly increasing population density, and growing demand for more advanced treatment options especially non-surgical treatments. Furthermore, other factors such as major government support for various healthcare infrastructures, favorable reimbursement policies and easy market penetration would also fuel the growth of AIDS associated dementia market in the next few years.
Various clinical trials are in development for the AIDS associated dementia therapeutics. Some of the top players involved in the clinical trial with regards to AIDS associated dementia market are GlaxoSmithKline plc, Centaur Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Glaxo Wellcome GmbH & Co. KG, Glaxo Wellcome GmbH & Co. KG and many others.
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