An antiemetic is a drug which is effectively used to prevent vomiting and nausea, side effects of opioid analgesics, etc. It is available as over-the-counter and prescribed drug at recommended doses. It is mostly used to prevent motion sickness rather than treating it. Presence of antihistamine and central anticholinergic properties make antiemetic drugs quite effective. The drug is as effective as cetirizine, a non-sedating antihistamine, does not cross the blood-brain barrier, and is not effective in either preventing or treating motion sickness. Nausea and vomiting is identified as the primary symptoms and in sometimes it can leads to other complications such as erosion of the tooth dehydration, and loss of appetite. These can affect daily activities and the quality of life if left untreated. Antiemetic drugs work by suppressing the vomiting reflex in the body. Motility stimulants work by increasing the movement through the gastrointestinal tract and serotonin antagonists suppress the signals to and from the vomiting center of the brain. Various types of antiemetic drugs are available with a number of medical applications. Antiemetic drugs can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or as a suppository.
Based on drug class, the antiemetic drugs market has been segmented into 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dopamine antagonists, NK1 receptor antagonists, H1 receptor antagonists, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, and steroids. In terms of application, the market has been categorized into dizziness, motion sickness, and others. The rapid rise of geriatric population is diagnosed with different types of disease like cancer where chemotherapy is a standard treatment and it poses side effect such as vomiting. Moreover, increasing number of gastroenteritis patients drives the antiemetic drugs market. However, the clinical pipeline for antiemetic drugs is dry and has been identified as one of the major factors likely to restrain the global antiemetic drugs market. Presently, rising cost in various research and development processes is exerting a lot of pressure on various drug making companies. Productivity in the antiemetic drugs market has also declined significantly in the past few years. This has induced companies to rethink before undertaking any new molecule or drug research projects. Hence, large drug manufacturing companies have started collaborating with various small biotechnology and research companies. These small biotech research companies do not have sufficient capital to carry out various late stage clinical trials that incur high capital expenditures, but have strong R&D capabilities. Therefore, large firms obtain the rights of the drug through one-time payment to these small companies and some royalties are paid on recurrent sales. For instance, in July 2011, Trius Therapeutics, Inc. entered into a partnership with Bayer AG for the development and commercialization of its antibacterial drug Tedizolid phosphate (in phase III clinical trials). In July 2013, Cubist Pharmaceuticals acquired Trius Therapeutics. Hence, Cubist and Bayer are now in the late stage clinical trials of the drug which will treat some gram positive infections including MRSA.
In terms of region, North America dominates the global antiemetic drugs market. This is attributed to well-established health care infrastructure, technological advancements, and favorable government support in the region. Europe holds the second position in the global antiemetic drugs market. Rapid rise in geriatric population and growing number of cancer patients are boosting market growth in the region. The market in Asia Pacific is projected to grow at the highest rate owing to rapid rise of health care infrastructure, rising disposable income of people, improving economic conditions, and increasing purchasing power of people.
GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Limited, Johnson & Johnson, Sanofi, Merck & Co., Novartis AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Astellas Pharma, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Abbott, Cipla Ltd., Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Baxter International, and IPCA Labs are the major players operating in the global antiemetic drugs market.
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