Toxoplasmosis infections are caused by a single-celled parasite known as toxoplasma gondii. The parasite can be found in cat feces and undercooked meat, especially lamb, venison, and pork. It can be transmitted through contaminated water and unpasteurized goat milk. Mother to child transmission and transmission during organ transplantation occur in rare cases.
Toxoplasmosis infections cause flu-like symptoms such body aches and pain that last for a month or more. Severe toxoplasmosis can cause brain, eye, or other organ damage. Immuno-compromised patients, HIV positive/ AIDS patients, patients undergoing chemotherapy, and pregnant women are at a higher risk of contracting toxoplasmosis infections. There are four types of toxoplasmosis infections: acute toxoplasmosis, Central Nervous System (CNS) toxoplasmosis, congenital toxoplasmosis, and ocular toxoplasmosis. Acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic, and patients have mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and myalgia. CNS toxoplasmosis infections commonly occur in AIDS or other immunocompromised patients. Congenital toxoplasmosis is an asymptomatic infection acquired by the mother during pregnancy. Ocular toxoplasmosis results from reactivated congenital infections and causes ocular pain, blurred vision, and sometimes blindness. Toxoplasmosis can be diagnosed through serological testing, CT or MRI scans, lumbar puncture, biopsy, and PCR. CNS toxoplasmosis can be diagnosed through MRI and CT scans, contrast agents, and laboratory tests. Medication for toxoplasmosis patients includes pyrimethamine and sulphadiazine, whereas infected pregnant women are treated with spiramycin, pyrimethamine, and sulphadiazine.
Increase in awareness about foodborne illnesses and rise in incidence of parasite infections across the world are projected to drive the global toxoplasmosis treatment market during the forecast period. Additionally, continuously increasing unhygienic environment in populated cities of the world is anticipated to propel the global toxoplasmosis treatment market in the near future. However, side effects of drugs such as allergic reactions over the skin, liver damage, and increase in resistance developed by parasites are likely to restrain the global toxoplasmosis treatment market.
The global toxoplasmosis treatment market can be segmented based on drug class, route of administration, distribution channel, and region. In terms of drug class, the global market can be categorized into antibiotics, sulfonamides, and antimalarial drugs. The antibiotics segment can be further classified into lincosamide antibiotics and macrolide antibiotics. Based on route of administration, the global toxoplasmosis treatment market can be bifurcated into oral and injectable. In terms of distribution channel, the global market can be divided into online pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies.
Based on region, the global toxoplasmosis treatment market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. Middle East & Africa and Latin America are expected to account for a prominent share of the global market because of higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis. Europe and North America are also anticipated to constitute a key share of the toxoplasmosis treatment market during the forecast period, due to rise in prevalence of toxoplasmosis and increase in awareness about new treatment options. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), almost 60 million people in the U.S. are infected with the toxoplasma gondii parasite. The toxoplasmosis treatment market in Asia Pacific is expected to expand rapidly during the forecast period. Expansion of the market in the region can be attributed to increase in awareness about personal hygiene and better access to health care.
Key players operating in the global toxoplasmosis treatment market are Vyera Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Akorn, Inc., Baxter International, Inc., Greenstone LLC, Mylan N.V., Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc. Pfizer Inc. Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC, Novartis AG, Lupin Ltd., PLIVA Inc., and Apotex Corp.
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