Nucleic acids are large and complex molecules responsible for transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next. The two major types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA carries out the function of transmission of hereditary characters, while RNA is responsible for protein synthesis. Generally, nucleic acids are labelled with tags which enable the detection and purification processes. There are various chemical and enzymatic methods available for labeling nucleic acids, such as incorporation of fluorescent tags, radioactive phosphates, and modifications with biotin, which are primarily utilized in biotechnology applications.
DNA and RNA fragments of uneven length are referred as probes. These nucleic acid probes can be labelled with tags during the process of synthesis. Depending on application, nucleic acids may be labeled at their 3’ end, 5’ end, or throughout (overall) molecule. Moreover, the formation of a single double-stranded molecule with complementary base pairing of two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) is referred as hybridization of probe. This hybridization of probes can serve for the detection of a defined target sequence of nucleic acids. However, based on the modification and if costly purification services are required for purchasing of custom oligonucleotide probes (mostly RNA) can be expensive. Previously, radioisotope labels were used for hybridization probes; however, demand for non-radioactive labels is increasing. The nucleic acid labeling market is driven by rising genomic and enzymology research, improvements in disease diagnostics, increasing health care expenditure, and growing government initiatives and investments in R&D in molecular biology. However, high competition in the market and lack of skilled professionals can negatively impact market growth in the long term. Moreover, the emerging economies may provide new growth opportunities for the players operating in the nucleic acid labeling market.
The nucleic acid labeling market has been segmented based on product, application, end-user, and region. Based on product, the market has been segmented into labels and probes. These are further classified into radioactive and non-radioactive labels and probes. Radioactive labels are the most preferred labels; however, demand for non-radioactive labels is increasing due to significant improvement in existing detection methods in terms of speed, versatility, and sensitivity.
In terms of application, the nucleic acid labeling market has been segmented into DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), blotting, in situ hybridization, microarray, and others. Based on end-user, the market has been segmented into pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and academic & research institutes. Pharmaceutical & biotechnology companies is the fastest growing segment of the nucleic acid labeling market driven by increasing R&D spending in pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector globally.
Geographically, the nucleic acid labeling market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America and Europe are likely to dominate the global nucleic acid labeling market. Rising genomic research is the key driver of the nucleic acid labeling market in North America. Increasing adoption of personalized health technologies is one of the key factors likely to drive the market during the forecast period. Europe held the second largest share of the global nucleic acid labeling market. Asia Pacific is the most progressive market for nucleic acid labeling. Increasing health care spending and rising medical tourism are projected to drive the market in Asia Pacific.
Key players operating in the nucleic acid labeling market are Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Merck KGaA, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Promega Corporation, GE Healthcare, Enzo Biochem, Inc., and Vector Laboratories, among others.