Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a blood disorder caused due to the production of abnormal blood cells in bone marrow. Bone marrow failure leads to drop in the number of healthy blood cells in the body. In MDS, bone marrow does not produce healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and/or platelets. Symptoms of MDS in the beginning are no specific than causes of pancytopenia i.e., deficiency of RBC, WBC and platelets. Therefore, the final diagnosis of MDS is done after examination of the cells of bone marrow. Bone marrow sample is taken from inside of a bone (usually the hip bone) and examined with a microscope using special stains to look for abnormal and immature cells. According to the American Cancer Society, over 13,000 new cases of MDS occur in the U.S. each year. According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders, 30% of patients with MDS can develop a form of blood cancer known as acute myeloid leukemia. Majority of patients diagnosed with MDS are aged between 65 and 70; however, MDS can affect people of any age and the risk of developing MDS increases with age.
The global myelodysplastic syndrome treatment market is driven by rise in the global geriatric population as MDS is most commonly found in this population and remains an incurable disease. Moreover, significant progress has been made in the diagnosis of MDS with the help of sequencing technologies. Chromosomal abnormalities can be identified in MDS patients with these technologies. These are useful for both diagnosis and prognosis in MDS patients. For instance, patients with chromosome 5q deletions are more likely to respond to lenalidomide. No new drugs have been approved for MDS by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 2006. Current available therapies can be efficacious, but are generally not curative. Some of the challenges in developing new treatments are the complexity and heterogeneity of MDS as a disease.
The global myelodysplastic syndrome treatment market can be segmented based on type of treatment and region. In terms of type of treatment, the market can be classified into supportive therapy, growth factors, chemotherapy (including hypomethylating agents), and stem cell transplant. Cytarabine, azacitidine, decitabine, and lenalidomide are the major drugs used during chemotherapy. Stem cell transplant is the only cure for MDS; however, majority of patients are not treated with stem cell transplant due to various factors such as high treatment cost, transplant-related deaths, and relapse rate at five years (as high as 40%). The chemotherapy segment is expected to hold major share of the global myelodysplastic syndrome treatment market due to larger application and less complications than other therapies such as stem cell transplant.
Geographically, the global myelodysplastic syndrome treatment market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa, and Middle East. North America is projected to dominate the global myelodysplastic syndrome market during the forecast period due to factors such as the rise in aging population and growing awareness about the disease among the population coupled with unmet medical needs in this region.
Key players operating in the global myelodysplastic syndrome treatment market are Celgene Corporation, Otsuka Holdings Co., Ltd., Sandoz, Inc., Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Inc., Accord Healthcare Ltd., Mylan N.V., and Pfizer, Inc.