Hydrogen cyanamide is a plant growth regulator. Plant growth regulators (PGR) are chemicals that shape plant growth in many complex ways. They control activities such as differentiation and cell division, root and shoot growth, ripening and flowering. These are naturally occurring elements that regulate overall development and growth of plants, and are also called plant hormones. Some plant growth regulators are applied to plants to get a myriad of changes. These changes often make the plant better or more saleable by inhibiting growth responses such as germination, stomatal closure and abscission. Hydrogen cyanamide is majorly used as a growth regulator for grape. It has properties similar to disulfiram which is used to treat chronic alcoholism. Hydrogen cyanamide is called carbamide or carbodiimide. It is also classified as a restricted use pesticide. Hydrogen cyanamide offers several advantages. It includes earlier fruit harvest, increase in fruit size and increase in yield. In addition, it decreases the rate of over cropping and poor leafing. Hydrogen cyanamide has potential disadvantages which include phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity reduces plant yields.
Organic farming has emerged as an important area in the agriculture sector on a global level in view of the growing demand for healthy and safe food. Organic farming also offers long-term sustainability and addresses concerns regarding environmental pollution associated with the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Hydrogen cyanamide are used for applications in soil, seed, or composting areas with the objective of increasing the number of such micro-organisms and accelerate microbial processes which boost the availability of nutrients that are subsequently assimilated by plants. Companies are focusing toward developing organic plant growth regulators to strengthen the organic offerings in crop nutrition. Organic plant growth regulators are premium products in the plant growth regulator category which have been mainly targeted at high value horticulture crops and other cash crops such as cotton and sugarcane. Hydrogen cyanamide causes adverse effects in the liver, thyroid, kidney, ovaries, and testes of laboratory animals. Hydrogen cyanamide has a modest toxicity in humans. Workplace exposure to hydrogen cyanamide sprays or exposure in people living in the vicinity of spraying have been reported as causing respiratory irritation, contact dermatitis, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. These parameters can adversely affect the hydrogen cyanamide market growth. Additionally, though plant growth regulators provide nutrition and enhance the growth of plants, they are used in less quantity compared to other agrochemicals such as fertilizers. Different types of farming such as organic farming mainly use pesticides and fertilizers for applications in pest control, crop rotation, and green matter. However, plant growth regulators are strictly limited to organic farming due to various reasons including dormancy of seeds and their sustainability. Thus, the demand for hydrogen cyanamide may diminish in the near future.
Demand for plant growth hydrogen cyanamide was highest in Europe. Demand for plant growth regulators in Asia Pacific is expected to witness substantial growth. Emerging economies in Asia Pacific such as China and India are anticipated to dominate the market owing to the large demand for plant hormones in grapes for wine production over the next few years.
At present, manufacturers such as Xinyi (H.K.) Industrial Co. Ltd., Sichuan Guoguang Agrochemical Co. Ltd, Drexel Chemical Company, Canpex Chemicals Pvt. Ltd and Kenvos Biotech Company Limited dominate the hydrogen cyanamide market.
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