Hybrid Flow Battery Market: Overview
Hybrid flow battery is a type of flow battery system that was conceptualized in the early twentieth century and put into practical application by Exxon and Gould in the early 1970s. It has one active materials inside a cell and the second material is a liquid that flows from external tanks into the reaction cell. In a hybrid flow battery, at least one redox couple species is not fully soluble and it can be either a gas or a metal.
The zinc bromine flow battery (ZBFB) is the most well-known type of hybrid flow battery. Typically, the battery consists of a cell with two compartments separated by a microporous membrane. The battery has an electrode at each side of the cell, i.e. one on the zinc side and one on the bromine side. Electrodes are made from carbon-plastic composites to prevent corrosion. External tanks are used to pump aqueous electrolyte toward cell stacks during charging and discharging.
Hybrid Flow Battery Market: Drivers & Restraints
Hybrid flow batteries have several advantages; therefore, these are extensively used. A major advantage of these batteries is their higher cell voltage as compared to that of vanadium redox flow batteries. Hybrid flow batteries offer around 1.8 volts, while vanadium redox flow batteries provide 1.4 volts. They also have high energy density and deep discharging capabilities. Another important advantage is that zinc can be used with several low-cost reactants such as iron and cerium. However, lack of fully independently scalable energy and power ratings, possibility of material corrosion, zinc dendrite formation, and shunt currents are likely to inhibit the hybrid flow battery market. Additionally, the cycle lifetime is also lower than that of vanadium redox flow battery. This, in turn, is likely to hamper the hybrid flow battery market.
The production cost of hybrid flow battery can be higher than other flow batteries, thereby further affecting its demand. The high production cost is due to several reasons. For example, the battery requires auxiliary systems for circulation and temperature control. Appropriate materials need to be used in electrodes and fluid handling equipment and membrane to endure the high oxidative nature of bromine. In large hybrid flow battery systems, the battery weight increases and specific energy reduces due to the increase in size of cooling mechanism, impact and leak detectors and controls, and enhanced electrolyte loss containment solutions.
Hybrid Flow Battery Market: Key Segments
The global hybrid flow battery market can be segmented by type, application, end-user, and region. In terms of type, the hybrid flow battery market can be bifurcated into zinc bromine flow batteries and other hybrid flow batteries. The others category consists of a combination of various materials such as zinc and iron or zinc and cerium.
In terms of application, the hybrid flow battery market can be divided into transportation and grid storage. Grid storage includes the use of hybrid flow batteries for on-grid connected systems and off-grid connected systems, while transportation primarily includes the charging of electric cars.
In terms of end-user industry, the hybrid flow battery market can be segregated into residential, non-residential, utilities, and transportation. The hybrid flow battery’s off-grid solutions are extensively used in residential and non-residential buildings, while on-grid solutions are employed in utilities.
Hybrid Flow Battery Market: Regional Outlook
In terms of region, the global hybrid flow battery market can be categorized into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa. Hybrid flow batteries have been adopted at a faster rate in North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific, while their adoption has been slow in Latin America and the Middle East & Africa.
Hybrid Flow Battery Market: Key Players
Major players operating in the global hybrid flow battery market include Redflow Limited, Primus Power, Gelion Technologies, and ZBB Energy Corporation.
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