Fc proteins are the proteins which are found on the surface of various cells including B.lymphocytes, natural killer cells, follicular dendritic cells, neutrophils, basophils, macrophages, eosinophils and mast cells. Fc proteins help these cells in providing protective functions to the immune system by binding with antibodies at fragment crystallizable region. Fc proteins bind with antibodies that are connected with either invading pathogens or infected cells stimulating the cytotoxic and phagocytic cells to destroy microbes, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-mediated phagocytosis. Based on these mechanisms many research institutes and market players in pharmaceutical industries are involved in developing engineered antibodies based on Fc proteins mechanism. On the basis of the available drugs in phase II and phase III pipeline, Fc proteins engineered antibodies market can be segmented into three types which are as follows:
Ocaratuzumab (AME-133V) is a humanized monoclonal antibody aimed for the treatment of cancer and auto immune disorders. This drug is developed by Mentrik Biotech, LLC and is currently under phase III clinical trials. Phase I and II trials which were aimed on relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma patients and rheumatoid arthritis patients in the U.S. and Japan respectively showed that ocaratuzumab is having 13 to 20 fold greater affinity then already available treatment drugs especially rituximab. Therefore, it is expected that this drug will prove beneficial in future assisting the growth of Fc proteins engineered antibodies market during the forecast period.
Margetuximab (MGAH22), Fc protein engineered antibody developed by Macrogeics, Inc. is currently under phase II clinical trials. This drug is designed to fight against advanced solid tumors expressing the HER2 oncoprotein. XmAB5574 (MOR208) is a Fc protein engineered monoclonal antibody in phase II development. The drug was developed by Xencor, Inc. and currently MacrphoSys AG is performing phase II clinical trials for the drug. The trials are aimed on treatment for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Xencor, Inc. discovered XmAB5574 and licensed the exclusive worldwide right for all type of indications to MorphoSys Ag in 2010.
Fc proteins and glycoengineered antibodies market will grow rapidly aided by the major developments taking place in glycoengineered antibodies technology platform. There are various technologies such as GlycoMab technology, GlycoExpress technology and GlymaxX technology which could be utilized for the production of novel Fc proteins engineered antibodies. Moreover, Fc protein engineered antibodies also have other emerging opportunities in addition to oncology and immunology. For instance, companies with successful antibody drugs nearing patent expiry can develop Fc proteins engineered antibody using monoclonal antibody.
Additionally, the increasing prevalence of the cancer worldwide is encouraging the scientist in developing more effective cancer treatment methods. According to World Health Organization (WHO), cancer was the leading cause of death in 2012, accounting for 8.2 million deaths worldwide. High prevalence of cancer coupled with high mortality rate is demanding for new and novel cancer treatment methods, hence driving the Fc proteins engineered antibodies market. However, the market is likely to face competition from other innovative antibodies based therapeutic technologies and other glycoengineered antibodies, which will restrain the market. For example, two highly efficient antibody drug conjugates namely adcentris by Seattle Genetics, Inc. and kadcyla by Genentech, Inc. are already present in the market, which will hamper the easy entry of Fc protein engineered antibodies during the forecast period.
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