Cation Exchange Resins Market
A cation-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange. It is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small microbeads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. The beads are typically porous, providing a large surface area on and inside them the trapping of ions occurs along with the accompanying release of other ions, and thus the process is called ion exchange. There are multiple types of ion-exchange resin. Most commercial resins are made of polystyrene sulfonate.
Cation-exchange resins are widely used in different separation, purification, and decontamination processes. The most common examples are water softening and water purification. In many cases ion-exchange resins were introduced in such processes as a more flexible alternative to the use of natural or artificial zeolites. Also, ion-exchange resins are highly effective in the biodiesel filtration process.
Most typical cation-exchange resins are based on crosslinked polystyrene. The actual ion-exchanging sites are introduced after polymerization. Additionally, in the case of polystyrene, crosslinking is introduced by copolymerization of styrene and a few percent of divinylbenzene. Crosslinking decreases ion-exchange capacity of the resin and prolongs the time needed to accomplish the ion-exchange processes but improves the robustness of the resin. Particle size also influences the resin parameters; smaller particles have larger outer surface, but cause larger head loss in the column processes. Besides being made as bead-shaped materials, ion-exchange resins are also produced as membranes.
Ion exchange resins are polymers that act as an ion exchange medium. They are insoluble in water and are cross-linked and chemically inert. Ion exchange resins are functionalized polymer microbeads, which are usually yellow or white in color. They consist of a fine network with numerous cavities/micropores. The polymer base of the resins is manipulated in order to capture/exchange components from surrounding solutions. There exist weak acid cation exchange resins and strong acid cation exchange resins. Weak acid cation exchange resins are weakly acidic ion exchange resins that have carboxylic acid groups as ion-exchangeable groups. Weak acid cation exchange resins are commonly utilized for industrial water treatment applications. These resins are employed to remove carbonates, bicarbonates, and other alkaline salts. Other applications of weak acid cation exchange resins include nickel and zinc recycling and purification and separation of biochemical drugs. Strong acid cation exchange resins contain sulfonic acids as their functional groups. The acidity of these resins is as strong as sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
Cation Exchange Resins Market: Drivers and Restraints
Rapid industrialization, especially in Asia, is analogous to the rise in demand for industrial water. Increase in water pollution in some of the major regions such as Asia is driving the need for water treatment technologies. The energy sector accounts for a significant demand for water treatment. Weak acid cation exchange resins and strong acid cation exchange resins are used for municipal and industrial water treatment. Thus, increase in demand for municipal/industrial water and wastewater treatment is anticipated to drive the global cation exchange resins market during the forecast period. However, cation exchange resins do not remove microorganisms such as bacteria from the feed water; however, they sometimes aid in bacterial growth. The resin beds are likely to accumulate organic matter, which serves as a source of nutrients for continued growth of bacteria. When sterile water is required after the treatment, the demineralized water produced by the ion exchange treatment plant needs to be treated by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or very fine filtration. Cation exchange resin beds can also be treated with disinfectants such as formaldehyde, but not with heat or chlorine, as they are likely to damage the resin. These factors are anticipated to restrain the cation exchange resins market during the forecast period.
Cation Exchange Resins Market: Segmentation
The cation exchange resins market can be segmented based on end-use industry as:
- Water & Wastewater Treatment
- Electrical & Electronics
- Power Generation
- Food & Beverage
Water treatment is a major application of the cation exchange resins market. They are utilized for water demineralisation, dealkalisation, etc. Cation exchange resins are employed to remove most positively charged ions in water such as iron, lead, radium, barium, aluminum and copper. Strong acid cation resins are also utilized for the recovery of uranium from water sources, especially mine water circuits. The process is used for low to medium uranium concentrations. Cation exchange resins are also significantly used in the chemical industry as a catalyst. They are used in the production of chemicals such as TAME, Bisphenol A, MTBE, etc.
Cation Exchange Resins Market: Region-wise Outlook
In terms of volume, Asia Pacific accounted for a major share of the global cation exchange resins market in 2016. This trend is estimated to continue during the forecast period. Europe is estimated to present minimal opportunities for the cation exchange resins market due to the implementation of stringent regulations on exposure to ion exchange resins due to health concerns. Major cation exchange resins manufacturers, such as The Dow Chemical Company, have a comparatively stronger position in North America, while Mitsubishi holds a strong position in the Asia Pacific cation exchange resins market.
Cation Exchange Resins Market: Key Players
Key players operating in the cation exchange resins market include:
- The Dow Chemical Company
- Lanxess AG
- Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
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