Anthrax is a severe infectious disease caused by spores of a gram-positive bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. It generally infects through four routes viz. the lungs, the intestines, the skin, and injectable. Anthrax affects both humans and animals, especially ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. It does not easily spread from one person to another. Signs and symptoms of anthrax vary depending on the type of infection. Cutaneous anthrax, gastrointestinal anthrax, inhalation anthrax, and injection anthrax have different symptoms. Common symptoms of cutaneous anthrax include rashes that are swollen, sore, and itchy. Nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, bloody diarrhea, swollen neck, headache, and difficulty swallowing are most common signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal anthrax. Shortness of breath, coughing up blood, painful swallowing, mild chest discomfort, and nausea are symptoms of inhalation anthrax. Multiple organ failure, meningitis, and redness at the area of injection are the most common signs and symptoms of injection anthrax. Currently, two key methods are available to diagnose anthrax globally that utilizes the presence/absence of either antibodies or toxins in the patient’s blood sample. Moreover, healthcare specialists also recommended to use direct tests for diagnosing the presence of Bacillus anthracis in the sample (skin lesion swab, respiratory secretions, blood, and spinal fluid). Cell-free PA vaccines and live vaccines are available in the market for Anthrax vaccines.
The global anthrax vaccines market is expanding significantly, due to increasing prevalence of the disease. Increased eating of undercooked or raw meat from infected animals drives the anthrax vaccines market. Increase in Industrial or manufacturing processing of contaminated materials such as hides and hair wool would also augment the market. Low rate of voluntary screening for the anthrax disease is a major restraint for the market. Awareness about anthrax diagnostic tests is extremely low in countries in Africa. Hence, companies are facing challenges with regard to market penetration in Africa. Moreover, several low- and middle-income countries in the sub-region depend on government grants for the provision of rapid diagnostic tests in the event of an epidemic. Therefore, direct reach to customers is weaker in these countries. These factors hamper the market in Africa.
The global anthrax vaccines market can be segmented based on vaccine type, application, distribution channel, and region. In terms of vaccine type, the market can be categorized into cell-free PA vaccines and live vaccines. Based on application, the anthrax vaccines market can be segmented into human use and animal use. In terms of distribution channel, the market can be classified into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies. In terms of revenue, the hospital pharmacies segment held a significant share of the global anthrax vaccines market in 2016.
Based on region, the global anthrax vaccines market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is the leading market for anthrax vaccines. In terms of revenue, the U.S. holds a major share of the market in North America. The market in Europe is expanding rapidly, due to increasing patient population, especially in the U.K. and Germany. The markets in Asia Pacific and Latin America are projected to expand significantly in the near future. Developing economies such as China and India are anticipated to contribute to growth of the market in Asia Pacific between 2017 and 2025, owing to improved health care infrastructure, economic growth, increase in the number of insurance payers, growth of the private health care sector, and increase in awareness in these countries.
Key players operating in the global anthrax vaccines market are Merck & Co., Inc., Emergent Bio-Solutions, Zoetis, Inc., PharmAthene, Inc., Biogenesis Bago S.A., Porton Biopharma Limited, Colorado Serum, and Merial (a Sanofi Compayny).
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