Genes are fundamental controlling structure in the living body, which contains all the information and hereditary data. It also contributes to the development, creation, and activity of all other cells. In addition, the genes assist in transfer of hereditary characteristics from one generation to other. The genes are encoded in double helical structured DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) while the transcription is continued by RNA (ribose nucleic acid) which is a monomer and assists in protein synthesis. The gene expression consists of two steps that separates protein-coding gene from its protein. The gene code is transcribed from DNA to messenger RNA and further it is translated from m-RNA to protein. Radio-controlled genetics is a science of remotely- activating genes inside the human body with the help of electromagnetic waves that guides the movement of nanoparticles injected in the body.
The market for radio-controlled genes is driven by various factors, such as, increase in R&D, technological advancements, rapid development of nanobiotechnology, demands for the treatment of various diseases through non-invasive and non-pharmacological methods and safety parameters. Safety parameter is considered as a vital driver of this market, since radio-controlled gene therapies are safer than traditional methods. This is because; radio waves are proved to be much safer than that of electrical waves, used in traditional therapies, which could damage the tissues and cells. Owing to extensive R&D practices, researchers got partial success in the induction of insulin-gene expressions through which insulin secretion in human body can be re-activated, which helps in the treatment of diabetes. Thus, extensive R&D is another valuable growth driver of the market. However, high cost of R&D activities, lack of awareness about the advancements in medical sciences, and high probability of failure in R&D practices are some of the hurdles that hinder growth of the market.
In 2012, researchers from Rockefeller University in New York carried out an experiment where the nanoparticles were remotely activated by radio waves and insulin producing genes present in living organism got triggered. While with the same radio waves the genes were also deactivated. This experiment was carried out with the help of specially designed insulin production genes induced in mice. This process included iron oxide coated nanoparticles with antibodies which got bound to modified ion channel on the cell surface. The modified ion channel was temperature-sensitive ion channel known as TRPV1, a magnetic field was created with the help of hardware in a form of magnetic resonance imaging device to heat the nanoparticles. The heated nanoparticles after reaching to a temperature 42 0C at which the ion channel got activated allowing calcium to flow into the cells and that activated an engineered calcium-sensitive gene which produced insulin.
The radio-controlled genes technology involves utilization of electromagnetic waves along with coded signals to control a device remotely. In genetic engineering, radio signals assist to direct the movement of nanoparticles injected inside the body. The radio waves have high penetration capacity compared to light or ultrasound waves, it penetrates into tissues and assists synthesis process of nanoparticles intracellularly.
The advantages of radio-controlled genes technology are its non-invasive nature of treatment and the modification of cells in case exogenous application. This method is expected to revolutionize the healthcare industry as it could possibly used in future to activate any calcium-dependent process in human body or treatment of protein deficiencies that are complex to synthesize or deliver due to any dysfunction or disorder caused to the central nervous system.
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