Multi-infarct dementia (MID) is one of the common causes of memory loss among elderly people as a result of reduced blood flow to parts of the brain. The primary reason for multi-infarct dementia is a series of minor strokes resulting in disruption of blood flow leading towards the brain. Since this medical condition arises due to problematic vessels, it is also known as vascular dementia (VaD). Multi-infarct dementia commonly affects people of age group 55 to 75 years. According to the National Institutes of Health, multi-infarct dementia is the second leading form of dementia, accounting for up to 20% of all cases dementia cases in people above age 65. An integrative approach to diagnosis of multi-infarct dementia is recommended which involves symptoms, medical history, health and lifestyle and certain cognitive tests in order to assess person’s cognitive ability. A specialist doctor may look for blood pressure, cholesterol levels, an electrocardiograph, etc to support a diagnosis of multi-infarct dementia. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT scan) or a magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI)
Presently, there is no treatment available to reverse the damage of brain cells that has been occurred due to stroke. Therefore, the multi-infarct dementia or vascular dementia therapy largely focuses on prevention of future strokes through controlling or avoiding conditions and diseases which increase the risk of stroke. The pharmacological treatment for multi-infarct dementia (MID) includes cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) such as donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine. Rivastigmine is a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor with the capacity to inhibit both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Other promising pharmacological medications prescribed for management of multi-infarct dementia include memantine, nimodipine, hydergine, folic acid and Cytidine 5′-Diphosphocholine (CDP-choline). Other classes of drugs utilized to treat multi-infarct dementia include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors).
Non-pharmacological approaches are equally important in the management of patients with multi-infarct dementia. The prognosis of multi-infarct dementia is generally poor and the 5-year survival rate is very less compared to other dementia. Moreover, unlike Alzheimer’s disease in which people are susceptible to infections, multi-infarct dementia may directly result into death due to probability of low supply of blood to brain. Despite the evidence that people with multi-infarct dementia improve over time, the condition can become abruptly worse after occurrence of silent strokes.
Geographically, the global multi-infarct dementia (MID) market can be segmented into four major regions, namely, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. Multi-infarct dementia is second most common type of dementia in North America and Europe, while it is the most common type of dementia in Asia and other parts of the world. For instance, it accounts for more than 50% of dementia cases in Japan. The prevalence of multi-infarct dementia (MID) is expected to rise drastically in the near future given the exponential rise in geriatric population of the world. Therefore, the global multi-infarct dementia (MID) market is expected to grow rapidly in the developed nations such as the U.S., Canada, Germany, France, and Japan where there is enormous rise in the elderly people.
Some of the key players in the global multi-infarct dementia (MID) market include Eisai, Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Forest Laboratories, Inc.
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