Hydrazine is a colorless liquid with ammonia like odor and is highly toxic and unstable. Hydrazine is primarily used in water treatment, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymerization and blowing agents and various other chemical applications. Commercially hydrazine is produced by Raschig process, Olin-Raschig process, Ketazine process, UREA process, Fisons process and Peroxide process. Raschig process is one of the most common process used for the production of hydrazine, however the process is characterized by lower yields. Exposure of hydrazine may lead to irritation of eyes, throat, nose, headache, nausea etc. Acute exposure may also lead to kidney, liver and central nervous system damage. The preliminary use of hydrazine was its use as rocket fuel, where hydrazine was used as fuel in numerous rockets used in space missions. Hydrazine can be used in fuel cells, which might offer benefits such as being cost effective and more power
Some of the key applications of hydrazine are its use as a reducing agent in applications such as boiler water treatment, refining, purification, waste water and effluent treatment. In boiler water treatment, hydrazine helps the removal of water dissolved oxygen, achieve very low impurity levels and passivate the inner boiler systems. The benefits of these properties include less corrosion, higher operating reliability, longer equipment life cycle, energy savings, maintenance cost reduction etc. In refining and purification, hydrazine is used for recovery of precious ores, and purification of noble metals such as platinum, gold, nickel, silver etc. The use of hydrazine in refining and purification applications, results in quicker recovery, high purity and high degree of reactivity. In waste water and effluent treatment, hydrazine is used for removal of contaminants such as Br2, Cl2, NOx and heavy metals from aqueous and gaseous streams. Hydrazine offers high operating reliability, high selectivity, reactivity and productivity in wastewater treatment applications. Other applications in which hydrazine is used include agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc.
In terms of hydrazine production, Europe was the major producer of hydrazine followed by Asia Pacific and North America. In Europe, Germany was the largest producer of hydrazine followed by France, U.K and Italy. In terms of hydrazine production, U.S accounted for the majority share in North America, whereas China was the major producer of in Asia Pacific. Consumption pattern of hydrazine was similar to the production pattern across the globe. In terms of consumption, Europe was the major consumer of hydrazine, globally. In Europe, the major consumptions markets were Germany, France, Italy, and U.K amongst others. Europe was followed by North America, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World. North America accounted for approximately one third of the total global hydrazine market. The major hydrazine markets in North America were U.S and Canada. In Asia Pacific, China accounted for the largest demand for hydrazine followed by India, Japan, Indonesia etc. There has been a growing demand for hydrazine and its derivatives especially from countries of Asia Pacific such as China and India. Growing industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries has led to an increased demand for hydrazine from these regions. With further economic development of these regions is expected to further propel the demand for hydrazine and its derivates in the near future.
Some of the major companies operating in the global hydrazine market are Arch Chemicals, Arkema, Arrow Fine Chemicals, Bayer, Atochem, Fisons, HidKim, and Lansdowne among others.
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