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Published Date: 2015-12-31Number of Pages: 163

Biometric Sensors Market By Type (Capacitive sensors, Optical sensors, Thermal sensors, Ultrasound sensors, Electric field Sensors) By Application (Voice Scan, Finger Scan, Hand Scan, Facial Scan, Iris Scan, Vein Scan) By End use (Consumer electronics, Commercial centers and buildings , Medical and research labs , Banking, Financial services sector, Defense and security) Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2015 - 2023

Global market for biometric sensors has been covered under the scope of this report. Biometric sensors are an essential part of identity technology. They can be defined as a ubiquitous technology that can be used in high definition cameras primarily for facial recognition and microphones for voice capturing purposes. The specially-designed units that can be customized to scan the vein patterns beneath the skin are also biometric sensors. Some key attributes of biometric sensors include fast verification and identification. Biometric sensors are breakthrough technology, which weed out various security-related issues from different domains. Technological advancements coupled with rising demand for biometric technology in different sectors such as automotive, commercial centers, consumer electronics and defense and security among others are offering great opportunities for the major players in the biometric sensors market.

Rising demand for fingerprint identification for gaining access in smart phones and other smart gadgets has positively impacted the growth of biometric sensors market. Growing demand for biometric sensor based tablets, smartwatches, wearable devices, and other consumer electronic products is acting as one of the major drivers for this market. Convenience of use and comprehensive nature of biometric sensors are among the key drivers for the global biometric sensors market. Biometric sensors are lightweight and compact in design. Furthermore, they can be easily installed in devices. Growing preference for stronger systems of security and convenience in terms of application are major factors contributing to the growing popularity of biometric sensors at the global level.

Increasing application of biometric technology in different sectors such as commercial centers, offices and airports coupled with rising application of finger and facial scan solutions in security and defense sector is some of the major factors contributing in the growing demand for biometric sensors market globally. Moreover, rising demand for fingerprint scanning biometric solutions for payments and banking is having a positive impact on the biometric sensors market.

By type, the market can be segmented into capacitive sensors, optical sensors, thermal sensors, ultrasound sensors and electric field sensors (e field). As of 2014, optical sensors held largest share in the market. Wide application in biometric systems and flexibility in application are major drivers for growth of optical sensors.

In terms of application, the market can be segmented into voice scan, finger scan, hand scan, facial scan and iris scan among others. Fingerprint sensors are widely accepted in various industries for authentication purposes in biometric systems. Factors such as rising cases of identity theft and increasing demand for data security and safety are leading to a positive impact on the fingerprint scan market. Finger scan and facial scan together contributed more than 56% share of the total revenue in 2014. Convenience in terms of application along with compact design is some of the major attributes of biometric sensors which in turn are having a positive impact on the market.

In terms of end use, biometric sensor market can be segregated into consumer electronics, commercial centers and buildings (airports, offices), defense and security, medical and research labs and banking and finance services sector among others. Commercial centers and buildings along with defense and security segment together accounted approximately more than 54% share of the total revenue in 2014. Furthermore, application of face scanning biometric sensors in consumer electronic products such as laptops and smartphones is rising owing to increasing preference for data security and heightened safety. In addition, hand, iris and vein scanning biometric technology for authentication and identification is gaining popularity in different sectors which include banking and financial sector, medical and research labs and hotels due to rapid advancements in operation procedures, which is stimulating the market for biometric sensors globally.

The market has been divided into major geographic regions such Asia Pacific, North America, Europe and Rest of the World (RoW). Asia Pacific led the market for biometric sensors in 2014, followed by North America and is expected to maintain its position over the forecast period from 2015 to 2023. Increasing concern towards data security and growing prevalence of identity theft is fueling the growth of the market for biometric sensors in Asia Pacific. Product development and increasing application of biometric technology in large international airports and commercial centers is fueling the biometric sensors market in North America. Demand for integrated fingerprint readers along with biometric lock system in hospitality industry along with in automotive sector is one of the major factors driving the market for biometric sensors in Europe.

Some of the leading players in the biometric sensors market are CrossMatch Technologies, Inc. (U.S.), Fulcrum Biometrics (U.S.), Infineon Technologies AG (Germany), 3M (U.S.), ZKTeco Inc (China), NEC Corporation (Japan), Safran (France), Precise Biometrics Ab (Sweden), Suprema Inc. (South Korea) and IDEX ASA (Norway) among others.

biometric-sensors-market

 


Chapter 1 Preface
1.1 Report Description
1.2 Market Scope
1.3 Key Take Away
1.4 Research Methodology

Chapter 2 Executive Summary
2.1 Global Biometric Sensors Market Snapshot

Chapter 3 Global Biometric Sesnors Market Overview
3.1 Introduction
     3.1.1 Nature of the global biometric sensors  market 
3.2 Market Dynamics
     3.2.1 Market Drivers
     3.2.2 Market Restraints
     3.2.3 Market Opportunity
3.3 Competitive Strategies Adopted By Major Players
3.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
3.5 Value Chain Analysis
3.6 Market Attractiveness Analysis, By Type
3.7 Market Attractiveness Analysis, By Application
3.8 Market Attractiveness Analysis, By End use
3.9 Key Market Players
3.10 Patent Analysis

Chapter 4 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, by Type (USD million and million units), 2014 – 2023 
4.1 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue, By Type, Overview
       4.1.1 Market Share, 2014 Vs 2023(%))
4.2 Capacitive sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
4.3 Optical sensors segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
4.4 Thermal sensors segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
4.5 Ultrasound sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
4.6 Electric field sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast

Chapter 5 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, By Application (USD million and million units)
5.1 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue, By Application, Overview
     5.1.1 Market Share, 2014 Vs 2023(%)
5.2 Voice scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
5.3 Finger scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
5.4 Hand scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
5.5 Facial  scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
5.6 Iris scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
5.7 Vein scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
5.8 Others segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast

Chapter 6 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, By End use (USD million and million units)
6.1 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue, By End use, Overview
     6.1.1 Market Share, 2014 Vs 2023(%)
6.2 Consumer electronics segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
6.3 Commercial center and buildings segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
6.4 Defense and security segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
6.5 Medical and research labs segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast 
6.4 Banking and financial service segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
6.5 Others segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast

Chapter 7 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, By Region (USD million and million units)
7.1 Global Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, By Region, Overview
     7.1.1 By Region: Revenue Share, 2014 Vs 2023(%) 
7.2 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue  and Volume forecast 
     7.2.1 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Type  
     7.2.2 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type 
     7.2.3 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
     7.2.4 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
     7.2.5 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
     7.2.6 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
     7.2.7 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Country
     7.2.8 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Country
     7.2.9 U.S. Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.2.10 Rest of North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
7.3 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue  and Volume forecast 
     7.3.1 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Type  
     7.3.2 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type
     7.3.3 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
     7.3.4 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
     7.3.5 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
     7.3.6 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
     7.3.7 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Country
     7.3.8 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Country
     7.3.9 U.K. Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.3.10 France Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.3.11 Germany Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.3.12 Rest of Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
7.4 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast  
     7.4.1 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Type  
     7.4.2 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type
     7.4.3 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
     7.4.4 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
     7.4.5 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
     7.4.6 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
     7.4.7 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Country
     7.4.8 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Country
     7.4.9 Japan Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.4.10 China Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.4.11 India Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.4.12 Taiwan Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.4.13 South Korea Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.4.14 Rest ofAsia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
7.5 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast 
     7.5.1 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Type 
     7.5.2 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type 
     7.5.3  Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
     7.5.4  Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
     7.5.5  Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
     7.5.6  Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
     7.5.7 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Region
     7.5.8 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Region
     7.5.9 Latin America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast
     7.5.10 Middle East and Africa Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast

Chapter 8 Company Profiles
8.1 3M
8.2 CrossMatch Technologies, Inc. 
8.3 Suprema Inc. 
8.4 NEC Corporation
8.5 Safran
8.6 Fulcrum Biometrics
8.7 Precise Biometrics Ab
8.8 IDEX ASA
8.9 ZKTeco Inc.
8.10 Infineon Technologies AG

List of Figures 

FIG. 1 Global Biometric Sensors Market Segmentation, by Type, Application and End use
FIG. 2 Porter's Five Forces Analysis
FIG. 3 Value Chain Analysis
FIG. 4 Market Attractiveness Analysis, By Type
FIG. 5 Market Attractiveness Analysis, By Application
FIG. 6 Market Attractiveness Analysis, By End use
FIG. 7 Biometric sensors patent filings and publications
FIG. 8 Global Biometric Sensors Market, By Type, Size, and Forecast, 2014 Vs 2023 (Value %)
FIG. 9 Capacitive sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 10 Optical sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 11 Thermal sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 12 Ultrasound sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 13 Electric field sensor segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 14 Global Biometric Sensors Market, By Application, Size, and Forecast, 2014 Vs 2023 (Value %)
FIG. 15 Voice scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast, 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 16 Finger scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 17 Hand scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 18 Facial  scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 19 Iris scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 20 Vein scan segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 21 Others segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 22 Global Biometric Sensors Market, By End use, Size, and Forecast, 2014 Vs 2023 (Value %)
FIG. 23 Consumer electronics segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast, 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 24 Commercial center and buildings segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 25 Defense and security segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 26 Medical and research labs segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 27 Banking and financial service segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 28 Others  segment, 2014-2023: Revenue and Volume forecast , 2014-2023 (In USD million and million units)
FIG. 29 Global Biometric Sensors Market, By Region, Size, and Forecast, 2014 Vs 2023 (Value %)
FIG. 30 North America Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 31 U.S. Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 32 Rest of North America Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 33 Europe Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 34 U.K. Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 35 France Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 36 Germany Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 37 Rest of Europe Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 38 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 39 Japan Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 40 China Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 41 India Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 42 Taiwan Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 43 South Korea Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 44 Rest of Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 45 RoW Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 46 Latin America Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)
FIG. 47 Middle East and Africa Biometric Sensors Market Revenue and Volume, 2014 – 2023 (USD million and million units)

List of Tables

TABLE 1 Global Biometric Sensors Market Snapshot
TABLE 2 Key Players of Biometric Sensors Market
TABLE 3 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Type  
TABLE 4 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type 
TABLE 5 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
TABLE 6 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
TABLE 7 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
TABLE 8 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
TABLE 9 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Country
TABLE 10 North America Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Country
TABLE 11 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Type 
TABLE 12 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type 
TABLE 13 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
TABLE 14 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
TABLE 15 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
TABLE16 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
TABLE 17 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Country
TABLE 18 Europe Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Country
TABLE 19 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Type 
TABLE 20 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type 
TABLE 21 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
TABLE 22 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
TABLE 23 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
TABLE 24 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
TABLE 25 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Country
TABLE 26 Asia Pacific Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Country
TABLE 27 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Type 
TABLE 28 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
TABLE 29 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Application
TABLE 30 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Application 
TABLE 31 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by End use
TABLE 32 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by End use
TABLE 33 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Revenue forecast, by Region
TABLE 34 Rest of the World Biometric Sensors market, 2014-2023: Volume forecast, by Region

Biometric sensors integrate physical traits of the human body with digital technology in order to provide biometric security. Semiconductor devices like biometric security systems contain algorithms and template database in order to match live biometric samples with the already stored samples in the database. Face metrics, fingerprints, and vein structures in hands among others are some of the physical traits used to prepare desired templates. Increasing concerns of privacy and security along with growing demand for smart gadgets with biometric security systems are some of the major driving factors for the market. A biometric sensor is a transducer that converts a biometric treat such as voice, face, and fingerprint etc. of a person into an electrical signal. Sensors generally measure temperature, pressure, light, electrical capacity, and speed. Biometric sensors are lightweight and compact in design. Furthermore, they can be installed in devices very conveniently. Some key attributes of biometric sensors include fast verification and identification. Biometric sensors are a breakthrough technology, which weed out various security-related issues from different domains. 

Factors such as increasing emphasis on better security and safety, application of fingerprint scan, facial scan, hand scan, and voice scan are expected to see positive growth during the forecast period from 2015 to 2023. Increasing emergence of mobile and online financial transactions, biometric security solutions have found a huge opportunity in the financial sector. Biometric sensors technology can be used in a wide number of applications such as automotive, consumer electronics, commercial centers, and hospitality industries. In the sectors where safety, privacy, and security are of primary concern, biometric sensors are expected to find opportunities in applications such as making transactions and operations. 

Biometric and fingerprint sensors have become a standard feature in consumer electronic products. Sensing the consumer preference for security and privacy, the key manufacturers of smartphones and other gadgets have started offering fingerprint sensors as a part of certain products. The demand for biometric security technology is on the rise due to the fact that the users of smartphones and other smart gadgets have become more familiar and comfortable with using tools such as fingerprint identification for gaining access. Growing demand for tablets, smartwatches, wearable devices, and other consumer electronic products is acting as one of the major drivers for this market. Furthermore, some of the factors acting as restraining factors for the market include limitation of application in different geographical regions due to cultural barriers and lack of standardization in the process of implementation and development of technical standards. However, graphene enable sensors are the future of the biometric sensors market. 

Based on type, the market is segmented into capacitive sensors, optical sensors, thermal sensors, ultrasound sensors, and electric field sensors (eField). In terms of application, the market is segmented into voice scan, finger scan, hand scan, facial scan, iris scan, vein scan, and others. Furthermore, by end use, the market is segmented into consumer electronics, commercial centers and buildings, defense and security, medical and research labs, banking and financial services sector among others. 

Geographically, the global biometric sensors market is categorized into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW). The scope of the report offers an insight into biometric sensors market in these regions based on revenue (USD million) and volume (million units). 

The report also includes competitive profiling of leading players in the industry and their market share to aid in strategic decision making. The market attractiveness analysis and company market share analysis included in the report provide insight into market dynamics, industry competition and strategies adopted by market leaders. 

The report also breaks down and reviews the various factors impacting the market growth, which can be appropriately described as market drivers, restraints, and opportunities. These factors help to determine the various existing trends and their impact on the market growth. Overall, taking into consideration the various factors affecting the biometric sensors market, the report includes a holistic analysis of the global biometric sensor market, and provides an estimate of growth for the period 2015 to 2023. 

Some of the leading players in the biometric sensors market are CrossMatch Technologies, Inc. (U.S.), Fulcrum Biometrics (U.S.), Infineon Technologies AG (Germany), 3M (U.S.), ZKTeco Inc (China), NEC Corporation (Japan), Safran (France), Precise Biometrics Ab (Sweden), Suprema Inc. (South Korea) and IDEX ASA (Norway) among others.