Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a type of protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. This protein is usually found in semen, but small quantities of PSA can be detected in the blood of healthy men. High level of the protein is likely to indicate the presence of prostate cancer. Along with the prostate cancer, a number of noncancerous or benign conditions can lead to a rise in the PSA level of a man. Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland while benign prostatic hyperplasia is an enlargement of the prostate gland. These two conditions are the most common benign prostate conditions which lead to elevation in the levels of PSA. There is no evidence as such that benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis causes prostate cancer, but it is possible for a man to have either of these conditions and develop prostate cancer.
Men who show symptoms linked to prostate cancer can have a PSA test in addition to digital rectal exam (DRE). Symptoms associated with prostate cancer include painful or burning urination, pain during ejaculation, swelling in pelvic area or legs, and loss of bladder control. The PSA level in most men is under 4 ng/mL. This value has been traditionally used as a benchmark for the risk of prostate cancer. Men with normal prostate glands and PSA levels less than 4 ng/ml have about 15% chance of having prostate cancer. The PSA levels are higher in men with prostate cancer which is more than the benchmark value. Hence, it is observed that a man with a high PSA level is more likely to get prostate cancer in comparison with a man with low level; although, there is no such normal and abnormal ranges of PSA in the blood.
Major contributors to the growth of the global prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing market are increase in adoption of serum-based marker testing for the diagnosis of prostate cancer along with its evaluation with other developing cancer-specific markers, which enhances the overall sensitivity of the test. However, risk of overtreatment and overdiagnosis due to PSA screening can hinder the growth of this market.
The global PSA testing market is segmented based on type, end-user, and geography. The market based on test type is classified into total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, free prostate-specific antigen test, and complex prostate-specific antigen test. In terms of end-user, the market is divided into hospitals, diagnostic centers, and clinics.
In terms of geography, the global market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Among the regions, North America is expected to dominate the market and is likely to be closely followed by Europe as prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer found in men in these regions. According to an American Cancer Society report in 2016, the estimates for new cases and deaths related to prostate cancer in the U.S. were about 161,360 and 26,730, respectively. Prostate cancer is one of the three leading causes of cancer deaths in American men, trailing behind lung and colorectal cancer. As per the report, it is estimated that 1 out of 39 men is likely to die of prostate cancer in lifetime. The Asia Pacific market is expected a fast growth due to increasing prevalence of prostate-related disorders. Other regions such as Middle East & Africa and Latin America are estimated a steady growth of the market due to rise in awareness levels about prostate cancer.
The prominent players operating in the PSA testing market are Abbott Laboratories, Inc., Beckman Coulter, Inc., Bayer AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Boston Scientific Corporation, Endocare, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, GE Healthcare, Merck & Company, Inc., Medtronic, Inc., Sanofi-Aventis SA, and Urologix, Inc.
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