Mycoses are fungal skin infections caused by fungi and are primarily caused by three groups of fungi: dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Dermatophytes cause fungal infections on head and feet, for instance, trichophyton and microsporum. Yeasts cause infections at the genital area, mouth area and esophagus. Example of yeast fungi includes candida and pityrosporum. Molds are responsible for infection in internal organs that results in systemic mycoses, for example, aspergillus. Systemic mycoses lead to the spread of fungi via bloodstream to other organs, causing multiple organ failure. Various symptoms associated with mycoses are as follows:
- Itchy and eczematous rash
- Lumpy and thickened skin
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Red skin patches
- Enlarged liver and spleen
Mycoses are caused due to weakened immune systems, i.e., immunocompromised state that includes patients with HIV/AIDS and patients being treated with corticosteroids for a prolonged period. Other causes include poorly controlled diabetes, being overweight, and any sort of contact with contaminated items such as clothes, towel, etc. Tests used to diagnose mycoses include a general physical examination of the body, complete blood count, skin biopsy, flow cytometry and immunophenotyping.
Based on treatment, the mycoses market can be segmented as follows:
- Photodynamic therapy: The therapy uses laser light and a drug to destroy the fungal cancer cells
- Radiation therapy: The therapy uses high-energy X-rays or radiation to prevent the fungal cells from spreading
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy stops the growth of fungal cells with the aid of various drugs, either by preventing the cells from dividing or by killing the cells
- Targeted therapy: The therapy identifies the affected cells without harming normal cells
- Drug medication: Antifungal medications such as amphotericin B, fluconazole, caspofungin, and itraconazole are used for the treatment of mycoses
Based on geography, the mycoses market can be segmented into four major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW). Out of these regions, North America holds a leading position in the mycoses market followed by Europe. According to National Institutes of Health, mycoses affect approximately 200,000 people in the U.S. every year. The major factors which are driving the growth of the market in these regions are increasing prevalence of AIDS/HIV across the North American region, leading to weakened immune systems of individuals and constantly growing awareness about mycoses. Asia Pacific is also expected to be one of the promising markets for the growth of mycoses market due to faster developing rate of Asia Pacific countries. The advantageous factors which would accelerate the growth of the market in Asia Pacific are presence of large population base in countries such as China, Japan, and India, prevalence of numerous diabetes patients and, population’s changing lifestyle and environmental conditions. Furthermore, various tax benefits and favorable reimbursement policies in developing nations are most likely to augment the growth of mycoses market.
Various pharmaceutical companies are coming up with novel therapeutic treatments for mycoses. Some of the top players operating in mycoses market for mycoses therapeutic development are Bayer AG, Dr. Reddy\'s Laboratories Limited, Helix BioMedix, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Nuvo Research, Inc., Moberg Derma AB, Novabiotics Ltd, Pacgen Biopharmaceuticals Corporation, Quinnova Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Xel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and others.
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