Viral exanthem refers to rashes observed in infants followed by high fever. Determining of the exact cause of rashes is difficult as look similar in most of the cases. Hence, other symptoms (such as headache, diarrhea vomiting etc), facilitate the physicians in identifying the type of virus responsible for onset of the disease. Exanthema subitum means a sudden rash and usually affects children below two years of age; sometimes this disease can occur in adults (18 years) but are limited to the transient rash period and mild fever. This condition is also termed as roseola infantum and is positioned as a sixth rash causing disease in children since, this condition is caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV 6). Similar condition is caused by other viruses as well resulting in development of rashes all over the body. These rashes are visible from head to toe and are red and blotchy in appearance. Infants suffering from common viral infections such as cold and sore throat are at the highest risk of acquiring viral exanthems.
Rashes are usually in the form of pink to red spots that occur on arms, legs and trunk. These rashes may or may not be itchy in nature and sometimes the patient may suffer from fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, pains, headache and irritability. Treatment is required in cases of severe rashes, while it is not mandatory in cases with mild symptoms, as rashes may last for few days and disappears on their own. However, certain medications can be administered against low fever, headaches and pains and furthermore, bed rest and intake of plenty of liquids is advised. For instance, Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are prescribed against headaches, fever and body pain. Cool sponge baths are also recommended to reduce the fever to certain extent.
In case of severe symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, seizures, stiff neck, red eyes and sputum with pus or blood, it is recommended to seek immediate medical care in order to avoid adverse effects. Treatment regimen is designed based on various blood tests to identify the serious cause of rashes and post testing; antibiotics are prescribed if a bacterial or other infection is suspected. Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections and hence, vaccines are administered as a preventive measure against viral infections.
The market for viral exanthem can be analyzed by the various medications aimed at providing symptomatic relief along with a detailed pipeline analysis of various drugs in investigational phases. Geographically, the market is segmented by four major regions namely, Europe, North America, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World. North America and European countries represent large market share of the total viral exanthem drugs market. This is attributed to high awareness levels and favorable government support. Regulatory policies pertaining to drug safety and efficacy play an instrumental role in commercialization and approval of the drugs. Furthermore, strategies such as in licensing and out licensing strategies adopted by the major market players also plays a significant role in drug development process.
The major factors favoring the growth of viral exanthem drugs market are rigorous research activities towards developing novel therapeutics against viral exanthem symptoms along with increased susceptibility of infants towards these infections due to weak immune system. On the other hand, factors such as absence for viral infections followed by negligence towards diagnosing the symptoms are some of the factors that might impede the market growth. Chloroamphenicol sodium succinate, tazarotene and threolone are some of the drugs in the investigational phases. Manus Aktteva Biopharma LLP, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., and CIRON Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd. are some of the companies engaged in the developing drugs against viral exanthem symptoms.
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